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America's new character education

2019-07-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- America's new character education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的新品格教育。20世纪80年代,面对美国社会出现的糟糕道德状况,美国的普通民众和教育界有识之士开始呼吁加强对青少年的道德教育,进行新一轮的学校道德教育改革,即新品格教育运动。新品格教育的开展归根结底是为了追求一种“道德共识”,实现 “社会整合”。20 世纪90年代以来,新品格教育的组织纷纷成立,包括公民教育中心、伦理与品格促进中心。这些品格教育组织致力于培养青少年的良好品格和公民道德,影响美国政府的决策,帮助学校设计新品格教育课程。

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The new character education is an education reform movement in the United States. Although China and the United States have distinct differences in political system, economic basis and cultural ideology, the exploration of the reasons for the rise of the new character education in the United States can be a mirror, from which we can learn some experience and lessons.

The failure of the American school moral education reform and the bad social moral condition in the 1960s and 1970s are the main reasons for the rise of the new American character education. From the reasons for the rise of new character education, we can draw two beneficial inspirations.

Looking back at the history of the development of American school moral education, objectively speaking, before the 1960s, the United States had always attached importance to the tradition of carrying out school moral education for minors. American families took the initiative to undertake the responsibility of carrying out family moral education for children, and the whole society generally supported school moral education. Due to inherited Aristotle advocated by moral infusion method to practice the doctrine of the "virtue can be taught", on the methods of moral education, mainly using the method of moral indoctrination, main performance at school is a teacher in the classroom teaching of "knowledge of moral", students in a passive to accept the position, in this kind of relationship between teachers and students, students in a passive position, the students' subjectivity and personality is neglected, the moral education pattern is referred to as "cramming" teaching. Students' ideological and moral quality of high and low, often is to pass the examination test, the evaluation of students' ideological and moral quality to pass the examination test way due to ignore the specific complexity of moral situation, the lack of the students' moral real experience, is essentially to detect the ability of the students' moral knowledge, and practical application to the student's moral learning is used to detect the social practice ability is not to come out or only rarely detected. In short, before the 1960s, the moral education in American schools went to an extreme in both theory and practice, that is, it took teachers as the center, emphasized teachers' subjectivity and dominance, and neglected students' subjectivity.

This kind of school moral education situation denounced by the progressive school more because hart Sean and mei "character education research" demonstrated by the results of the character education skills and students' common moral behavior patterns have little contact or no contact between, reveals a character education will have little impact on the students' daily behavior. American academia began to reflect on the traditional moral education, urgent to seek a kind of new moral education approach, logical, 60-70 - s of the 20th century American school moral education to start the reform, the reform movement, there are two typical representative, namely the las, such as mode of value clarification and kohlberg's moral development theory, the two kinds of model is established on the basis of the criticism of traditional character education, school-based moral education, both against the character education way for the center with virtue, do not emphasize a particular moral education content, only attach importance to the process of moral education, Teaching students ways of moral cognition and moral reasoning; In the face of the American society of value diversification trend, not to emphasized the mainstream values of the guidance, in order to embodies social moral consensus, but in order to pursue the so-called each ethnic group's values, political rights equality, the attitude of value neutrality, requirements for teachers don't teach specific moral knowledge, only one-sided emphasis on moral decision-making process and the importance of personal freedom and discipline. Both model theories believed that they provided a way of moral education consistent with the American way of life at that time. However, the opposition to the specific education of virtues and virtues, so that students have no moral standards to follow, the social authority is bound to weaken; Teachers are required to take a value-neutral attitude and pay no attention to the specific content of moral education, but only pay attention to the process of moral education. In fact, they blindly believe in the moral reasoning ability of students, which is essentially equivalent to giving up the moral education of students. It can be seen that this kind of moral education proposition essentially goes to the other extreme, that is, one-sided belief in students' ability, although it insists on students' subjectivity, it gives up teachers' dominance. As a teenager lack of social experience, is a "day", the students should make full use of this period "to the teacher" to strengthen the education of students, but don't let the students to accept a specific code of ethics, and in the absence of guidance and teaching for students to carry on the moral cognition and moral practice, essentially only is a kind of irresponsible act.

The reform of American school moral education in 1960s and 1970s made the school moral education that should play a leading role in the moral education of teenagers not play its due role. In addition, during this period, with the rapid development of the American economy, the traditional stable family structure was constantly destroyed, the divorce rate of families was on the rise, and the breakdown of the relationship between parents made children's family moral education in a lack of status, and teenagers lacked the most direct objects to imitate. Moreover, due to the continuous strengthening of social mobility in this period, various traditional social organizations have been declining, while the emerging social organizations have not yet been established or functioning. The disintegration of the traditional safety net composed of schools, families and social organizations exposes teenagers to a variety of values. Teenagers lack the means to choose the right values and are vulnerable to the erosion of various wrong values and cultures, and they go further and further on the wrong road. As American teenagers with no future with a good moral education and guidance, in the social life in a lot of problem of "morality", such as performance in the movie forrest gump the 60-70 - s of the 20th century American teenagers moral values distorted, the lack of desire to do better, blindly against authority, and the pursuit of absolute freedom, in an ideal short, began to degenerate. All these have not only affected the national image of the United States, destroyed the stability of the society, but also caused immeasurable losses to the American economy, threatening the domination of the American bourgeoisie.

In the 1980s, faced with the bad moral situation in the American society, ordinary people and people of insight in the American education circle began to call for strengthening the moral education for teenagers, and carried out a new round of school moral education reform, namely the new character education movement. The development of new character education is to pursue a "moral consensus" and achieve "social integration". The new round of reform of school moral education is supported by the new conservatism, the new conservatism resolutely combating counterculture ethos, insist on long ago already existing in capitalism patriarchal family, powerful country, based on the specification of religion, paternalism and obedience form an ideal system, emphasis on family and religion play an importance in maintaining social order; It advocates both basic education and the restoration of morality, discipline and teachers' authority in schools. It opposes the value neutrality of schools and believes that there are some basic human values, such as honesty, respect and responsibility. Calls for more federal control of education. The federal government and state governments at all levels have not only provided financial support, but also conducted special moral education programs. As for the academic world, there are many books on the new character education, such as kilpatrick's why Johnny doesn't know right and wrong, and rebuilding our schools: A handbook of teaching character, scholarship, and discipline by Edward a. wynne and Kevin Ryan. These works and papers discuss the basic concept and theoretical basis of character education, and put forward some opinions on how to carry out character education in primary and secondary schools. Since the 1990s, new character education organizations have been set up, including civic education centers and ethics and character promotion centers. These character education organizations work to develop good character and citizenship among young people, influence U.S. government decisions, and help schools design new character education programs.

Through the above preliminary exploration of the reasons for the rise of new character education in the United States, we can draw some warnings, which are of far-reaching significance to our school moral education.

At present, there is basically no one denying the necessity and significance of moral education in schools in our academic circles and teachers. But there is no denying that, with the development of The Times and the impact of various cultural views, one day in the future, our country may also appear a situation like that of the United States -- one-sided pursuit of students' subjectivity, neglect of teachers' dominance, and abandon the responsibility of moral education for students. It is not true, as the current update education concept, teachers have consciously abandoned the practice of the past to ignore students' subjectivity, began to more and more attention to the students' role in teaching, and even some teachers decide to let the students in the classroom, it is a good thing, but if one step forward will walk into another extreme, namely only attach importance to students' subjectivity, denied that the teacher's leading, causing the "absence" of school moral education. Therefore, we must be prepared for the future, resolutely alert to the phenomenon of "de-moralization education", firmly adhere to the moral education of students. At the same time in the choice of the content of moral education must adhere to the mainstream values and mainstream values of the whole social common recognition, represents the consensus of the social morals, it can play a role social cohesion, we can't because of the current and future interests of diversification, gave up the mainstream values of value diversification, let all kinds of decadent values erode the teen brain, the brain of the masses, the advanced thought weapon not to occupy, the backward ideas will be occupied.

In the field of school moral education, the United States by the action of organization attaches great importance to the family and society's significant achievements, as well as 60-70 s of the 20th century, because of the lack of family moral education and social organization of fatigue caused by the bad moral opposite situation, enlightenment we should make full integration of schools, families, communities, and other aspects of power and moral education together to form a network, through the establishment of a wide variety of moral community to promote the formation of individual character. Attach importance to the combination of moral knowledge learned by students and specific moral practice, and make school moral education return to real life from the circle of scientific, formalized, idealized and adult, and deal with the problems encountered in the process of moral education with life as the carrier, so that students can experience and construct virtue. Parents should also strengthen the way and method of family moral education, set an example and be the first qualified teacher for their children. At the same time, other social organizations, including the community and the management office of martyrs cemetery, should also participate in the moral education and training of students, so that students can feel the power of morality in specific life.

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