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Why and How Corporate Philanthropy Should Matter

2019-06-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Why and How Corporate Philanthropy Should Matter,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了企业的慈善事业。慈善事业对于任何公司来说都是必要的,这不仅仅是出于伦理考虑,也是基于公司可持续发展的需要。战略性慈善是一个长期积累的过程。如果一家公司只在海啸或地震等不可预测的自然灾害面前以公众形象出现,实际上很难产生持久的影响。企业应该从战略的角度来考虑企业的慈善活动。参与慈善的最佳方式是将企业捐赠融入企业发展目标,形成与企业经营相关的慈善主题。其次,制定系统、细致、个性化的公关计划和营销策略,突出企业的社会福利。

corporate Philanthropy,企业慈善事业,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The essence of corporate philanthropy is that the company bears certain social responsibilities. A.B. Carrol (1999) suggests that corporate social responsibility has four levels of significance: economics, law, ethics, and philanthropy. Engaging in various types of charitable activities is an important form of expression in which companies participate in social life and assume social responsibility. If charitable social responsibility can be further integrated with the company's own operations, exerting technological and resource advantages, the company will win the praise of the society and enhance its reputation among the public. This will have a positive effect on enterprises to enhance their core competitiveness and maintain sustainable development. This essay first justifies corporate philanthropy from ethical, utilitarian, and social conflict perspectives. How corporate philanthropy influences the company’s competitive advantages will also be evaluated. Overall, corporate philanthropy is an important way for companies and society goal to align and achieve sustainable development.

It is necessary to answer the question whether the company should assume philanthropy responsibility. Some people think that enterprises are economic beings, and they constantly pursue profit maximization. Others think that enterprises are a combination of a series of contracts, and are producers of goods for the public. These all explain enterprises in only one way. Simply put, an enterprise is an economic organization that provides goods, seeks benefits, and serves the society within the scope of laws and regulations (Kolstad, 2007). As an economic entity, an enterprise must combine various internal factors to maximize profits. At the same time, enterprises are still the carrier of the political system and ideology of certain society. As a member of society, enterprises must not only handle the relationship between internal factors, but also the relationship with the public, the environment, the consumers, and other stakeholders of the company (Kolstad, 2007). Just as a healthy person cannot be separated from the society, a company cannot exist independently from a certain social environment, consumers, competitors, and other stakeholders. Therefore, corporate responsibility is not only economic and legal responsibility, but also philanthropic responsibility and ethical responsibility. A successful company must seek the harmonization of these responsibilities.

The stakeholder theory is one of the most popular theories to justify corporate philanthropy. A stakeholder is an individual or group of individuals who have one or more interests in a business (Brown, & Forster, 2013). Stakeholders can be considered as any individual or group that an enterprise can influence through actions, decisions, policies, practices or goals. Conversely, these individuals or groups can also influence the actions, decisions, Policies, practices or goals of the enterprise (Pérez, & Rodríguez del Bosque, 2016). In today's highly competitive and economically globalized environment, many individuals and groups are corporate stakeholders. The direct stakeholders of enterprises include the stockholders, employees, customers. Indirect stakeholders cover an even broader scope, including members of the supply chain, business competitors, government institutions, special interest advocate groups, the mass media, and the society (Brown, & Forster, 2013). The main stakeholders have a direct impact on the success of the company, and the secondary stakeholders have a great influence on the company as well. Stakeholder theory is an objective basis for illustrating the philanthropic responsibility of enterprises from a mutually beneficial perspective. Enterprises that bear certain responsibilities are able to bring more opportunities to themselves, to realize their own interests, and to meet the requirements and expectations of stakeholders at the same time. This is a result that everyone is satisfied with, reaching the maximum utility.

In addition to the ethical and functional perspectives, corporate philanthropy is also an effective way to resolve social conflict. At present, the gap between the rich and the poor, and the distribution of social wealth are becoming the major social problem around the world. This requires both the further improvement of the social security system and philanthropy. In addition to the distribution of social wealth through the competition-driven way, social security and social welfare, a moral-driven distribution is an effective complement to the redistribution system. That is, the rich voluntarily distribute the money to the poor (Dasgupta, & Kanbur, 2011). Charitable activities are a kind of selfless dedication to the people who encounter disasters or misfortunes in society. It is a necessary supplement to the social security system under the leadership of the government. Charity is not only a barometer of economic development, but also a balance between the rich and the poor, and an important force in a harmonious society. Under the influence of ethics, enterprises voluntarily donate part or most of their profits to the society. It helps to narrow the wealth polarization, and make up for the limited government capacity. The philanthropy of enterprises not only plays a role in poverty alleviation, but also plays a role in resolving social conflicts and stabilizing social order.

Since the mid-1990s, Michael E. Porter has gradually applied his theory of competitiveness to the analysis of corporate philanthropy, and finally formed a unique strategic corporate philanthropy theory. Porter first explicitly opposed the mutual exclusion of corporate philanthropy and corporate economic goals represented by Milton Friedman (Stonehouse, & Snowdon, 2007). Porter believes that in today's open, knowledge-based competitive environment, this idea of conflicting philanthropy and profit has become increasingly obsolete. First, the competitiveness of enterprises depends to a large extent on the competitive context, including well-trained employees, high-quality scientific research institutions, sound infrastructure, efficient and transparent administration procedures, and sufficient natural resources, etc. Corporate philanthropy can often improve the competitive environment of enterprises. Second, the competitiveness of today's enterprises does not depend mainly on the quantity of production factors, but on the level of productivity. Enterprises control pollution and waste directly in improving productivity (Stonehouse, & Snowdon, 2007). Meanwhile, they can also improve education and infrastructure through charitable donations, which is undoubtedly improving productivity in an indirect way. Obviously, philanthropy is not only beneficial to the society, but also beneficial to the enterprise.

Strategic philanthropy has a very important impact on the competitive environment. For example, improvement in the level of education and training provides enterprises with a large number of high-quality labor reserves. Improvement in the quality of local life of the enterprise is beneficial to all local residents, and at the same time attracts the migrating population with special expertise. This is an illustration of the theory of Creating Shared Value through goal alignment (Moon, et al., 2011). From the perspective of demand and supply situation, strategic philanthropy can not only affect the local market size, but also effectively improve the quality of the local market. From a strategic and competitive environment perspective, strategic philanthropy is critical for creating a more efficient and open and competitive environment. Finally, from the perspective of relevant and supporting industries, strategic philanthropy can promote the development of the group in which the company is located and consolidate various supporting industries related to the enterprise. American Express has participated in philanthropic activities to support tourism (Marguerite, 1999). Such supportive industries have enhanced the competitiveness and development capabilities of the local tourism industry, and indirectly brought great benefits to American Express.

Corporate philanthropic donations can also create a responsible enterprise and a positive corporate culture for the company, attracting and retaining employees, creating a positive work atmosphere, and easily create an active and healthy value for employees (von Schnurbein, Seele, & Lock, 2016). Through continuous and effective charitable donations, companies can create and maintain relationships with stakeholders such as governments, customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. This kind of relationship asset will create more value for the company. For example, after Jiaduobao, a Chinese beverage company, donated 100 million yuan after the Wenchuan Earthquake, sales performance of the company rose sharply. In 2008, the company's sales exceeded 10 billion yuan, almost doubled that of 2007 (Bai, & Chang, 2015). The huge donation of Jiaduobao is not only the reflection of its social responsibility, but also the foundation for the enterprise and its brand to grow. Philanthropy has won the company high economic benefits and good reputation, achieving a win-win situation for both enterprises and society. At the 2010 Yushu Earthquake Disaster Relief, the company once again donated RMB 110 million to the disaster area. This move further consolidated Jiaduobao’s national enterprise image among the public, greatly shortening the process of brand recognition by Chinese consumers.

In conclusion, philanthropy is necessary for any company not only because of ethical considerations, but also based on the companies’ need of sustainable development. Strategic philanthropy is a long-term accumulation process. If a company only appears in the public image in the face of an unpredictable natural disaster such as a tsunami or an earthquake, it is actually difficult to create a lasting effect. The enterprise should consider about the charitable activities of the enterprise from a strategic point of view. The best way to participate in philanthropy is to integrate corporate donations into corporate development goals, formulating a philanthropic theme related to business operations. Then, a systematic, detailed and personalized public relations plan and marketing strategy to highlight corporate social welfare should be created accordingly. All successful enterprise should build a philanthropy program, and a marketing system that takes into account the economic benefits and social effects. The alignment of corporate and social goals is the key to sustainable and long-term success of the enterprise.

References

Bai, X., & Chang, J. (2015). Corporate social responsibility and firm performance: The mediating role of marketing competence and the moderating role of market environment. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32(2), 505-530.

Brown, J. A., & Forster, W. R. (2013). CSR and stakeholder theory: A tale of Adam Smith. Journal of Business Ethics, 112(2), 301-312.

Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business & Society, 38(3), 268-295.

Dasgupta, I., & Kanbur, R. (2011). Does philanthropy reduce inequality? The Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(1), 1-21.

Kolstad, I. (2007). Why firms should not always maximize profits. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(2), 137-145.

Marguerite M. (1999). American Express Deal to Boost Florida Tourism: FINAL edition. Palm Beach Post.

Moon, H., Parc, J., Yim, S. H., & Park, N. (2011). An extension of porter and Kramer's creating shared value (CSV): Reorienting strategies and seeking international cooperation. Journal of International and Area Studies, 18(2), 49-64.

Pérez, A., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. (2016). The stakeholder management theory of CSR. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(5), 731-751.

Stonehouse, G., & Snowdon, B. (2007). Competitive advantage revisited: Michael porter on strategy and competitiveness. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(3), 256-273.

von Schnurbein, G., Seele, P., & Lock, I. (2016). Exclusive corporate philanthropy: Rethinking the nexus of CSR and corporate philanthropy. Social Responsibility Journal, 12(2), 280-294.

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