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Creating Political Institutions for Climate Change

2019-05-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Creating Political Institutions for Climate Change,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了应对气候变化的政治机制。气候变化和核问题之间存在平衡,会对全球的民族国家造成某种不稳定。简言之,气候变化是一种国家安全威胁,既影响人类安全,也影响整个国家的国家安全利益。所以每一个相关的人都必须为成功解决气候变化问题做出自己的贡献。而政府,则要创建不同的和更好的协调和执行政策的新政治机构,以避免气候变化的加剧。

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Introduction

It is known to us that climate change is becoming an increasingly serious problem nowadays and it has caused a series of detrimental effects toward the wide public in one way or another. There is no doubt that people are all eager to solve the climate change issue so that they won’t be influenced by climate change too much. But the problem is that whether climate change can be effectively addressed by nation-states has been argued for quite a long period of time while agreement still has not been reached even till today. Some people argue that climate change can be effectively addressed by nation-states because nation-states can actually do a lot to help deal with climate change. However, others hold that climate change cannot be effectively addressed by nation-states and it still calls for the efforts of other institutions at the same time apart from the nation-states. There is no doubt that it is necessary to create new and different political institutions to coordinate and enforce policies necessary to avoid raising the global temperature by more than 2℃ when taking the below few aspects into account: there is parallel between climate change and nuclear issues; climate change will result in some kind of destabilization toward the nation states in the globe; and climate change is a national security threat that will affect both human security and the whole state’s national security interests.

Creating Political Institutions for Climate Change

First and foremost, the necessity to create new and different political institutions to coordinate and enforce policies for eliminating climate change can be indicated from the fact that there is parallel between climate change and nuclear issues (Course Syllabus, Marlise Simons). The existence of parallel between climate change and nuclear issues can powerfully imply the severity of climate change to a large extent so as to show the urgency in dealing with it. Detailed speaking, the banning of atomic arsenals and other biological, chemical as well as other weapons of mass destruction has been strongly suggested because atomic arsenals and other biological, chemical as well as other weapons of mass destruction will cause birth defects and illness due to radiation, contamination, etc. Apart from that, scientists have warned that even the use of a small percentage of the world’s nuclear arsenal will change the atmosphere radically and can cause a large scope of crop failures (Course Syllabus, Marlise Simons), which can well imply the effects of nuclear arsenal toward climate change. Also, nuclear testing will exert an impact on rising sea levels, which motivates Tony de Brum, the foreign minister of the Marshall Islands, to propose the parallel between climate change and nuclear issues in a climate summit meeting in mid-December in Lima, Peru (Course Syllabus, Marlise Simons). From the perspective of Tony de Brum, they both will lead to growing international tension and they are both incompatible with various human rights principles. Climate change and nuclear issues are bound to influence the security and the survival of humanity. Therefore the successful solving of the climate change problem can only be reached when people have got themselves rid of the nuclear misunderstanding.

Moreover, the phenomenon that climate change will result in some kind of destabilization toward the nation states in the globe can help justify for the necessity of the creation of new and different political institutions to coordinate and enforce policies for eliminating climate change. Just take Iraq as an example, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) emerged when Iraq experienced its warmest March-April-May season on record almost around the same time, which could not be a coincidence but it could mean much more (Course Syllabus, Eric Holthaus). To put it more specifically, the drying of agricultural land and increasing temperatures is recognized as contributing to the destabilization of Syria under the regime of Bashar al-Assad (Course Syllabus, Eric Holthaus). What’s worse, the U.N. reports had reported that global warming is destabilizing the nation states all over the world and Syria is just one of those nation states. The destabilization of a series of countries in the world is really a horrible situation for the development of those countries and for people within those countries. In order to better illustrate the connection between climate change and the emergence of ISIS in Iraq, Eric Holthaus further applies the view of Frank Femia, a member at the Center for Climate and Security, and what Frank Femia put forward is that climate change does have a role to do with the emergence of ISIS if it is not directly leading ISIS to do what it is doing (Course Syllabus, Eric Holthaus). ISIS has used the dams as a weapon in war to threaten electricity production and downstream agriculture to gain control of the territory of northern Iraq and Syria. As a matter of fact, the Center for Climate and Security is a Washington-based policy institute advocated by senior retired military and national security leaders, which is right one of the political institutions that can help coordinate and enforce policies necessary to avoid raising the global temperature by more than 2℃. And it is added that there is a powerful connection between high temperature and political instability, including civil wars, ethnic violence and riots. As a result of rising temperature in Iraq, the risk of crime and social tensions as well increased in this country. In this sense, it is obvious that nation-states can not effectively address climate change because they will be destabilized by climate change to a larger degree.

Last but not the least, the idea that climate change is a national security threat that will affect both human security and the whole state’s national security interests can be used to explain for the necessity of the creation of new and different political institutions to coordinate and enforce policies for eliminating climate change (Course Syllabus, Dr. Michael McElroy, et al.). Climate change is listed as a national security threat by the Department of Defense so that the urgency in effectively addressing it can be readily detected. Climate change will lead to plenty of potential impacts on economic security, energy, food and water. All these are daily necessities for people to live their life and people cannot survive without them. The incidence of a series of unusual extreme weather phenomena around the world recently, such as droughts, floods, heat waves and storms, has been the ongoing concern for the United States (Course Syllabus, Dr. Michael McElroy, et al.). The rationale why climate change will be the ongoing concern for the United States lies in that the climate change issue has caused impacts on its national security interests together with its human security, which has influence its country in various unfavorable ways. What is a pity to say is that this kind of influence will continue over the next decade and it will keep bringing detrimental effects toward people within this state and toward the state as a whole. Though this article only lists the United States as an example, the condition faced by the United States may also have been experienced by many other countries in the globe. As climate change is a national security threat, it is undoubted that the nation states have a duty and obligation to address it. Otherwise the anomalous climate extreme phenomena may persist. But only the efforts of the nation states are not enough in effectively address it because there will be conflicts between nations and states. The nation states should make efforts to handle those conflicts and they may pay not enough attention to the climate change issue in the due time, leading to not smooth solving of the climate change issue in the end. Therefore the new and different political institutions to coordinate and enforce policies for eliminating climate change should be created in order to more effectively address the climate change issue.

Conclusion

To sum up, a reasonable conclusion can be drawn that it is necessary to create different and new political institutions for better coordinating and enforcing policies as can be used to avoid the increase of the global temperature by more than 2℃ as long as the below three aspects are considered: there is parallel between climate change and nuclear issues; climate change will result in some kind of destabilization toward the nation states in the globe; climate change is a national security threat that will affect both human security and the whole state’s national security interests. Based on this, there is no doubt that more efforts have to be made for the successful solving of the climate change issue so that the vast majority of nation states and people do not have to suffer from the detrimental effects brought by the climate change too much at last. Each and every one concerned has to make his/her own bit toward the successful solving of the climate change issue. Only in this way can the globe keep moving forward and getting improvement step by step.

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