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Language and Skills Development in Childhood

2019-05-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Language and Skills Development in Childhood,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了儿童的语言和技能发展。儿童在幼儿时期通过与他人的不断对话,发展了快速的语言技能,学会了如何系统地表达自己的思想和看法。他们不再用单独的单词来表达自己的意思,而是学会了用句子的形式来解释自己的想法。另外,儿童大脑的快速发育和神经系统的不断完善,使儿童批判性思维等技能得到了快速提高。

childhood thinking,儿童的语言和技能发展,essay代写,作业代写,代写

1. Introduction

In early childhood, children's thinking skills developed rapidly during this period, while their language skills were relatively poor (Genishi & Dyson ,2015). Although children have a strong desire to express themselves, due to the lack of no systematic expression, the result is the seemingly no logical expression of language. Language is a tool for communication and thinking. Childhood is an important period of language development, especially the development of spoken language. While children communicate in the use of language, they also develop interpersonal skills, the ability to understand and judgment, the ability to situate and the ability to organize one's own thoughts. Getting information through language, children's learning gradually surpasses the individual's direct perception.

This article focuses on analyzing children's language and ability development. First of all, this article introduces the different stages of children's language development, and then summarizes the characteristics of children's language development in early childhood through practical observation. Next, the article combines the observation results to analyze the development of children's abilities, such as thinking ability and problem-solving ability. Finally, the article analyzes how the development of language and abilities at this stage prepare children for entering the learning environment.

2. The Development of Language Skills

Language is the most important communication tool of human beings. Toddlerhood is the most rapid and crucial period in human life. People consider that the period from 3 to 5 years old is crucial to learn the language. This stage is the strongest period for the child to accept the language. The language is under the most rapid development during this period (Owens, 2016). The performance of children's language acquisition process is a bilaterally manifestation of genetic and environment effects.

2.1 Language Development Stage

Children's language development can be roughly divided into the preparatory phase and the complete phase of the language (McCarthy, 1946).

2.1.1 Language preparation period

This period is also known as the preparatory phase of language which refers to children at early 1-3 years old. The first phase of language development, word phrase stage, is from birth to 12 months to 18 months. Toddlers in this period tend to use a simple vocabulary to replace and express the meaning of a complete sentence. They use gestures, expressions and other supportive expression of their wishes. Language development phase II is also the multi-sentence phase referring to toddlers from the 18th month to the 24th month. As children in this period have a more profound understanding of the surrounding environment, their vocabulary has rapidly increased. The child uses two or three uncorrelated simple words to replace the meaning of a complete sentence. If they say single worlds: “Outside, car”, they mean to push the car to the outside. The third phase of language development, also known as simple sentence stage, is from 24 months to 36 months. During this period, the number of children's vocabulary has increased significantly, and simple sentences that contain strong logic and contain subject predicates will be used.

2.1.2 Language completion period

This period is also known as the complex sentence of the transitional phase and refers to children from 3-6 years old (Owens, 2016). Children in this period will use the vocabulary they already know to express their wishes, simply describe their inner thoughts, pronounce correctly and learn the rules of group formation into sentences. However, simple sentences still occupy a certain proportion of their lives. As the number of years increases, simple sentences are replaced by more and more compound sentences.

2.2 The Observation and Analysis

The children to be observed are generally about 5 years old. In terms of language, voice organs of 5 years old young children have matured, and they already grow the correct physical conditions of all the syllables available. During the observation, these children have been able to recognize their own voice problems with others, especially the development of phonological awareness.

The children's vocabulary is found to be still very rich. They use a lot of terms, adjectives and verbs. In normal class, children can express their own meaning clearly and accurately using various adjectives, verbs and nouns. For those these complex orientation terms, such as up and down, left and right, before and after, far and near, they can not only identify, but also distinguish between these positions and their own position. For daytime, night, morning, night, hour and other time concepts, they have a clear sense. In the use of personal pronouns and the accurate use of you, me, he, they generally do not confuse the relationship between these pronouns.

These children no longer appear to talk to themselves as often as younger children (Barrett, 2016). The most salient characteristic of the children at this age is that they will think themselves when they encounter problems, rather than talking to themselves. The children have been able to clearly express their meaning in a complete word, and can use conjunctions such as because and so.

3. The Development of Skills

Early childhood is a crucial period of intellectual development and the potential development of mining thinking. From 3 years old to 7 years old, this is a period of game-driven activity. In the game, there are some initial forms of learning (such as counting) and labor (such as wash handkerchief) activities. Children expand the scope of contact, increase perceptual experience and continue to improve language skills continue to improve in the new activities, acting to create the conditions for a further development of children's thinking. The main features of early childhood thinking are the specific image and the possibility of a preliminary abstraction.

3.1 Cognitive Perspective towards Skill Development

3.11 Specific image of thinking

Early childhood thinking is gradually freed from the stranglehold of direct perception and action, beginning with the distinctive images or appearances of specific things for thinking activities. That is, the transition from the intuitive action thinking to the concrete image (Malti & Ongley, 2014). For example, young children reflect the relationship between father, mother and children in the "play house" game by virtue of the concrete appearance of family life. This kind of thinking is mainly based on the concrete image association rather than by virtue of the understanding of the intrinsic essence and relationship of things, which is, by means of concepts, judgments and reasoning. Take another example. some toddlers bathe their own new toy doll as they see their adults bathe their children. This kind of concrete image thinking of young children is inseparable from the comprehensive analysis of appearances in the process of their cognition and the relatively poor knowledge and experience.

Through experimentation and observation, during this period, the dominant method of thinking is the image-specific thinking, which is also characterized by continuous development and changes. Children in early childhood retain fairly obvious features of intuitive action thinking, and by the later period, abstract logical thinking has begun to develop within the limits of its own experience.

3.12       First grasp of the concept

The start of the formation of abstract logical thinking is to grasp the concept of the beginning. Generally speaking, young children can summarize the common features of a group of things but the level of generalization is not high. Especially for younger children, many of the characteristics that they generalize are extrinsic and non-essential (Siegler, 2013). Later, the transition to the generalized characteristics is often a mixture of external and internal, non-essential and essential (Kendeou, 2007). Only older children begin to summarize according to the essential characteristics of things within the limits of knowledge experience.

For example, ask a younger child what a horse is and he will answer it is that horse. And this embodies the concept of the physical. And if you ask older children, they have been able to point out at a general level of some of the more prominent characteristics of the physical, especially the functional characteristics. Their answer is that horse is the cart. As to the children older than 5 years old, they have begun to point out the sum of several features of a given object, but they are limited to certain external and internal features of the familiar objects, rather than to the essential and non-essential ones and be able to distinguish. They will answer the horse has a head, a tail, four feet and the pulling car function.

3.13 The initial development of abstract logical thinking

Abstract logical thinking is based on the perceptual knowledge, and reveal the internal relations of things through the concept, judgment, reasoning and the process of the nature of contact. In later childhood, within the context of what they experience, the children begin to make abstract logical thinking initially (Siegler, 2013).

The development of preschool children's reasoning thinking is studied through the specific operation observation of children's winning the game. The results showed that the 3-year-old group basically could not perform inference activities, the inference ability of 4-year-old group began to occur, most of the 5-year-old group could perform reasoning activities, and the 6-and-7-year-old groups all could reason inference.

3.2 Mathematics Skill Development

The period of About 5 years old is a critical period for young children to grasp mathematical concepts, perform abstract operations and begin to form comprehensive mathematical ability. The critical period of entering the school age is the child's mental ability to master mathematical concepts and grasp the concept of space. this part adopts number, quantity, shape and relationship are the four major contents of mathematics to analysis the skill development in mathematics.

3.2.1 Logarithmic understanding

By being observed the number of children and making simple additions and subtractions, toddlers after 5 years of age can realize that the number does not change due to changes in format and form a number of "conservation", but this understanding is limited to the number of less than 10. They are able to do a small number of abstraction operations without physical support and learn to count within 100 (Siegler & Booth, 2004). At this stage, children have formed a number of concepts at higher levels and begun to transition from representations to abstract numbers.

3.2.2 Quantity understanding

The accuracy of perception among children at about 5 years old has been greatly improved. They can distinguish and arrange different size objects, recognize and distinguish more accurately the object's height, thickness, length, thickness and so on, and learn to use the corresponding words to represent (Siegler & Booth, 2004). Although children can judge the same quantity this time, they still lack the understanding of the object "quantity conservation." If you pour the same amount of water in two tall, thin, and short, thick cups, it is hard to for these children to tell if the two cups contain as much water. Children aged 5 to 6 years can correctly recognize and use the corresponding words to describe the various characteristics of the quantity of objects and at the same time a better understanding of the relative quantity. They also gradually understand the reversibility and transitivity of the quantity on a logical basis.

3.2.3 Shape understanding

Children between the ages of 5 and 6 can basically understand the typical characteristics of graphics and form a "standard style" of graphics in their minds so that they can make correct judgments and further understand the complex relationships between graphics. In addition, foreign research data show that children aged 5 to 6 years can summarize the relationship between the graphics at a certain level of abstraction. At this stage, children can also recognize some basic stereoscopic figures, such as spheres, cubes, and cylinders, and can name them correctly.

3.2.4 Relationship Understanding

Although children aged 5 to 6 years can sort objects by length or size, they do not consider them as a whole nor systematically sorting. The observation found that children sort tasks by trying out mistakes. Early childhood is easier to grasp the type of repetitive types, but to grasp the growth type of style is relatively difficult.

3.3 Biological Perspective towards Skill Development

During the period from 3 to 6 years, children's brain development is still relatively rapid, brain weight has been increased from 900g at 1 year to 1200g at 6 years of age. Nerve fiber branch plus longer (Posner & Rothbart, 2007), which is conducive to the formation of neuronal connections, and this is also positively related to logical thinking ability of children during this age. At the age of 6, virtually all of the nerve conduction pathways in the hemisphere are already myelinated, allowing the body to travel quickly and accurately along the neural pathways to the cortical superior center, leading to the stimulation and strengthen of child's ability to think, and problem-solving. Cortical areas increase the possibility of temporary contact with each other, the role of differentiation is greatly enhanced and the formation of conditioned reflex is more stable and consolidate (Johnson, 2001).

4. School Readiness

The development of children's language and related abilities, such as reasoning and critical thinking, cultivated in the kindergarten, are all laying the groundwork for the children's entry into school and further specialization learning.

Language is a tool of communication and thinking. The development of children's language runs through various fields and has an important influence on the later school learning and development. while children use language to communicate, they are also developing their ability to interpersonal communication, understanding others and judging situations of communication, and organizing the ability to think, all of which are the most fundamental requirements that need to be met when entering school.

Kindergarten trains the children in different situations of social interaction by language, in order to enhance the ability of children to express their ideas, so that children gradually learn to understand and communicate in the interaction. Children often carry out activities such as drawing and reading. When reading a book in daily life, children can interact with pictures and text symbols to express their understanding of the contents of the picture book in oral language, thus obtaining the understanding of the correspondence between spoken language and written language. This gradually developing preliminary reading comprehension and accordingly reading experiences lay a solid foundation for children to enter school and develop deeper understanding as the children need to cover a more intensive scope of reading and apply the comprehension and reading understanding into their own knowledge.

5. Conclusion

Children develop rapid language skills during their early childhood through constant dialogue with others and learn how to express their thoughts and perceptions in a systematic manner. Instead of expressing their meanings in separate words, they learned to explain their ideas in the form of sentence, showing the ability to grasp important attributes of the objects and the inductive skills. On the other hand, the rapid development of children's brains and the constant improvement of the nervous system during this period brought rapid improvements in children's skills, such as their ability to critical think. During the childhood, they developed specific graphic thinking abilities, mastered the concepts of things at this time, and developed the abstractions of logical thinking as well as some key mathematics skills. After these analysis, this article reviews children's activities and behaviors in the kindergarten, and bridges to the theoretical knowledge to found the theoretical support. In the end, this paper analyzes how their language skills are constantly growing in their daily lives, and how their skills are developed through the activities of kindergartens. Early childhood education paves the way for further study into higher education in the future, preparing them for communication with others, independent thinking, information transfer and absorption in school learning.

Reference:

Barrett, M. (Ed.). (2016). The development of language. Psychology Press. Chapter 6. 146-150

Genishi, C., & Dyson, A. H. (2015). Children, language, and literacy: Diverse learners in diverse times. Teachers College Press. Chapter .1

Johnson, M. H. (2001). Functional brain development in humans. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(7), 475-483.

Kendeou, P., van den Broek, P., White, M. J., & Lynch, J. (2007). Comprehension in preschool and early elementary children: Skill development and strategy interventions.Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies, 27-45.

Malti, T., & Ongley, S. F. (2014). The development of moral emotions and moral reasoning. Handbook of moral development, 2, 163-183.

McCarthy, D. (1946). Language development in children.

Owens Jr, R. E. (2016). Language Development: An Introduction| Edition: 9. Instructor.

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Educating the human brain. American Psychological Association.

Siegler, R. (Ed.). (2013). Children's thinking: What develops?. Psychology Press. 37-243.

Siegler, R. S., & Booth, J. L. (2004). Development of numerical estimation in young children. Child development,75(2), 428-444.

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