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Security Challenges and Opportunities of Internet of Things

2019-05-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Security Challenges and Opportunities of Internet of Things,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了物联网。物联网是将互联网扩展到计算机以外的物理对象。传统上,互联网的影响仅限于虚拟世界。物联网打破了这种限制,将世界各地使用的机器纳入一个单一网络。通过物联网收集的大量数据将为人类进入大数据时代做好准备,然后才能给人们的生活带来无数的改善。这使得物联网成为当今信息技术最关键的领域之一。

Internet of Things,物联网,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the extension of the internet into physical objects other than computers. Traditionally, the influence of the internet is limited within the virtual world. IoT breaks such limitations by including machines used all over the world into a single network. The amount of data collected through IoT will prepare humans for the age of big data, before bringing countless improvements to people’s lives. This makes IoT one of the most critical areas of information technology nowadays. Evolution of the IoT has been based on the internet itself. Initially, the web was connecting different computers only, enabling them to communicate with each other. Mobile devices and people were soon added to the internet as the transitional step before IoT. A completely IoT involves not only computers, mobile phones and people, but also machines like ATMs, automobiles, home appliances, etc. (Kumar & Patel, 2014). The increasing number and diversity of devices, however, are becoming a major security concern of the IoT. This paper will examine, investigate, explore the safety issues of IoT from both the macro and structural scales, before proposing potential solutions to prepare humans for the future.

The increasing scale of the IoT and the nature of its basic elements, machines (or devices), are the biggest sources of IoT’s safety vulnerabilities. The scale of IoT has been growing rapidly in recent years, and is expected to reach 50 million devices by 2020 (Fink, Zarzhitsky, Carroll & Farquhar, 2015). In the past, the idea of “identity” was exclusive to human beings. In the age of IoT, however, machines have their own identities as well, which gives them more autonomy in accessing different services. Unlike human identities, machine identity is much more vulnerable to security attacks since they are much easier to fake. While fabricating a human identity may be complicated, a machine ID can be easily manipulated with a swap of hardware or overwriting the codes. Traditionally, public-key infrastructure and the X.500 framework of certification authorities are used as safety measures for a hardware system (Fink, Zarzhitsky, Carroll & Farquhar, 2015). However, these measures are not suited to work with the astronomical number of devices hooked in the IoT. In the future, involuntary gathering of data through various devices in the IoT will only increase with the development of artificial intelligence. The number of devices is directly linked to the development of the big data. Without proper way of data protection, there will be much higher chance of privacy violation. From the technical perspective, the challenges of faced by computer scientists and engineers include the insurance of the anonymity, pseudonymity, unlinkability and unobservability features of the IoT elements.

The other source of difficulty in IoT security, is the variety of devices included in the process of a single service. Due to the different manufacturers and standards involved in the different machines, control is much harder to achieve compared to a system with only one type of devices. The interconnectedness of different devices thus becomes both the biggest advantage and vulnerability of IoT. The construction of IoT is based on three different layers, the perception layer, the network layer, and the application layer (Kumar & Patel, 2014). The perception layer is responsible for data collection and making sense of the physical world. Devices used in the perception layer include sensor network, RFID, M2M, home network, control gateway, etc. The network layer processes, broadcasts and assort the data obtained. The methods of communication by the network layer include 2G, 3G, Wi-Fi, satellite, CDMA, GSM, integrated IP core network, etc. Finally, the application layer determine the purpose of the system, for example, the establishment of smart environment or smart business through IoT. The variability of IoT is mostly concentrated in the perception layer, where different types of hardware are used. Although the network layer is relatively safer, software level security breaches in this layer can cause much bigger damages than in the perception layer, since the network layer is the central controlling of the entire IoT (Yang et al., 2017). Devices from the same layer may share information for the sake of humanized services. For example, a user’s automobile and mobile phone may both have access to his/her contact information. The difficulty is to make sure the same set of data is receiving the same privacy protections among different devices.

Based on the scale and variability of the IoT, there are several major challenges that are the most vulnerable to security breaches. Before any data collection is possible, user consent acquisition is the first step that all users must go through. In the age of the big data, information has become the most valuable assets of large IT companies. However, the users may not be aware of the significance of the data they are authorizing, nor have they any knowledge how their data will be used by the companies. Despite the necessity of exchange of free services with information, users are entitled more effective and efficient request consents (Perera et al., 2015). The ability to control, customize and freely choose the authorization of data has been stripped from the data owners in IoT. However, there is a lack of choice for the users to select devices to build their own smart environments. While the users may opt for giving up such authorization to service providers, it is the responsibility of the regulative government sectors that should ensure no misconduct and deception occurs in the process, by studying the fine print on behave of the public. The anonymity technology is another major challenge of IoT. Anonymous data is largely harmless in the age of the big data, and only identity-specific data can result in privacy violations. In the “multidimensional” world of the IoT, an effective anonymizing scheme should be promoted on all the devices involved. Different stakeholders, including device manufacturers, cloud service providers, third-party application developers, government as well as the consumers, should all be motivated for the data security of IoT (Perera et al., 2015)

While the existing data protection schemes aren’t comprehensive enough for the challenges of IoT, the problem of data protection is not unsolvable. A sense of control is the key to the protection of data, from the very moment the data is obtained by the sensors and recorded, to the extraction and deletion of data, all steps and flow of data must be monitored with necessary encryptions accompanied (Perera et al., 2015). In response to the challenge of the enormous amount of the data and the scale of IoT, efficient and scalable algorithms must be developed in the future and applied to different data processing technologies. Meanwhile, developers must make sure the new algorithms are applicable to different scales of data, and throughout different devices. Although these algorithms sound difficult to design, the existing workload and resource performance capabilities of the big data technology will be an effective source of inspiration (Perera et al., 2015). In one application of the data security system proposed by Zhang, Antunes & Aggarwal (2014), a security cloud is built to process all the malware detected from the automobile. In addition to the network level defense, perception level defense is also established through onboard malware defense. Prevention, blockage and deletion algorithms are designed so that the chance of security breach is minimized. As an example of successful IoT security, such a system can be adapted to other devices of IoT as well, given manageable increase in cost.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a topic that engenders excitement, skepticism, and anxiety. Supporting these feelings are expectations regarding the potential value that the IoT can create today and into the future, and the potential risks regarding security and privacy issues. IoT is essential in both technical and business aspects. It enables people to innovate and solve real life problems, that were traditionally out of the capacity of the internet. However, risks come with the opportunities of IoT, with the unprecedented scale and variability of it. With the number of devices in IoT more than the population of the world, management and security are significant for its proper development in the future. Based on the current challenges of IoT, a safe and concern-fee connection between the physical and the digital world will only be possible through the development of scalable algorithms for data security and anonymizing.

Annotated Bibliography

Fink, G. A., Zarzhitsky, D. V., Carroll, T. E., & Farquhar, E. D. (2015). Security and privacy grand

challenges for the Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 27-34. doi:

10.1109/CTS.2015.7210391

This article discusses various kinds of vulnerabilities that can be expected to arise, and presents a research agenda for mitigating the worst of the impacts.  In addition, the article provides a range of technical and social concerns specific to the rapid growth of IoT technologies being introduced into the market. The main purpose of this article is to draw research attention to the potential dangers of IoT so that many of these vulnerabilities can be avoided in the future.

Kumar, J. S., & Patel, D. R. (2014). A survey on internet of things: Security and privacy issues.

International Journal of Computer Applications, 90(11) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5120/15764-4454

This article introduces Internet of Things (IoT), which offers capabilities to identify and connect worldwide physical objects into a unified system. As a part of IoT, serious concerns are raised over access of personal information pertaining to device and individual privacy. The article identified several open issues related to the security and privacy that need to be addressed by research community to make a secure and trusted platform for the delivery of future Internet of Things. It also discussed applications of IoT in real life. Lastly, it describes the protection of data and privacy concerns are the key challenges that the researchers need to overcome.

Perera, C., Ranjan, R., Wang, L., Khan, S. U., & Zomaya, A. Y. (2015). Big Data Privacy in the Internet of Things Era. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 17, 32-39. doi: 10.1109/MITP.2015.34

This article discusses some of the main challenges of privacy in the IoT as well as opportunities for research and innovation. This was due to IoT devices need to store data locally on devices ("things"), whereas others might store it in the cloud to capture the user information in order to learn more and better serve system users. The real value of collecting data comes through data processing and aggregation on a large scale, where new knowledge can be extracted. Lastly, the authors also introduce some of the ongoing research efforts that address IoT privacy issues.

Yang, Y., Wu, L., Yin, G., Li, L., & Zhao, H. (2017). A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues in

Internet-of-Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 99, 1-10. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2017.2694844

This article provides a description of the term Internet of Things (IoT) and its importance in our society. (IoT) are used in our homes, in hospitals, deployed outside to control and report the changes in environment, prevent fires, and many more beneficial functionalities. However, it also describes the drawbacks that it can have, such as huge risks of privacy loss and security issues. To secure the IoT devices, many research works have been conducted to countermeasure those problems and find a better way to eliminate those risks, or at least minimize their effects on the user's privacy and security requirements. The survey consists of four segments:  The first segment will explore the most relevant limitations of IoT devices and their solutions. The second one will present the classification of IoT attacks. The next segment will focus on the mechanisms and architectures for authentication and access control. The last segment will analyze the security issues in different layers.

Zhang, T., Antunes, H., & Aggarwal, S. (2014). Defending Connected Vehicles Against Malware:

Challenges and a Solution Framework. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1, 10-21. doi:

10.1109/JIOT.2014.2302386

This article describes the potential threats that a malware can caused for IoT vehicles as well as the solution to address these challenges. Vehicles face growing security threats as they become increasingly connected with the external world. Hackers, researchers, and car hobbyists have compromised security keys used by the electronic control units (ECUs) on vehicles, modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors, using low-cost commercially available tools. However, the most damaging security threats to vehicles are only emerging. One such threat is malware, which can infect vehicles in a variety of ways and cause severe consequences. Defending vehicles against malware attacks must address many unique challenges that have not been well addressed in other types of networks. This paper identifies those vehicle-specific challenges, discusses existing solutions and their limitations, and presents a cloud-assisted vehicle malware defense framework that can address these challenges.

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