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The Death of the Buddha

2019-05-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Death of the Buddha,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了佛像《佛陀之死》。这尊佛像是犍陀罗佛教的《佛陀之死》,创作于库珊时期,目前在纽约大都会艺术博物馆展出。这个雕塑是佛教和犍陀罗艺术的使者。当佛陀在八十岁去世时,他打破了轮回,完成了涅槃,这个雕塑展现了佛陀涅槃期间僧侣们的困境。然而,对于佛陀的离去,苏跋陀罗实现了不寻常的平静,成为整个雕塑的画龙点睛之笔。因为他知道佛陀已经打破了生与死的轮回,完成了涅槃,他的离去是进入了一个更高的阶层,人们不必为他的离去而悲伤。

The sculpture, the Death of the Buddha by Gandhara Buddhism, is created during Kushan period and now exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. This sculpture is the messenger of Buddhism and Gandhara art. When the Buddha died at eighty, he broke his reincarnation and completed Nirvana, The sculpture shows the plight of the monks during the Nirvana of the Buddha. As for the departure of the Buddha, however, Subhadra realized the unusual calmness and became the finishing touch to the entire sculpture. Unlike other mourning monks, he is back to the remains of Buddha. Because he knows that the Buddha has broken the cycle of birth and death to complete nirvana, his departure is into a higher class, and people do not have to sad for his departure

This sculpture tells the story of Buddha's death. But the life of Buddha is also full of legends. Buddha, formerly known as Siddhartha, is the prince of ancient India, Gabi Luo Weiguo. The Buddha's mother, Maya, dreamed of white elephants and then gave birth to Siddhartha. Siddhartha is bright talent. As long as 12 years old, he already mastered the highest knowledge of India at that time, and at the age of 16, he married his cousin Yogyakarta wife. His life was originally happy. However, once he drove out of town and through the city gates of East, South and West, he saw the oldness, sickness and death of human beings. respectively, realizing that all people have unavoidable pains. Later, as he passed through the north gate and saw a marching ascetic, he decided to pursue this ancient method of practice to escape the shackles of fate. Just one night in his 29s, he left his wife and family and went out to practice. After Siddhartha was put out of the palace, he could not be freed from confusion at first because he failed to find the causes of all kinds of pains and the ways of eliminating the pains. At this moment, Siddhartha decided to find his own answer. After six years of hard work, Siddhartha's body became very skinny. He cleaned up the grime of six years of deposition in the river of Nirjanang, sat cross-legged, summed up his past experience and readjusted his thinking method. After a few days of hard work, he finally gained a thorough consciousness and then he became a Buddha, who was only 35 years old. Buddha led his bhikkhus continue to talk about Buddhism, increase the number of Bhikkhu, and expand the size of the Sangha. Forty-five years later, when Siddhartha led his disciples to the city for a walk, he completed Nirvana in the village of Pashupu next to the woods at the age of 80 years.

The main meaning of The Death of the Buddha is to pass on the death theory in Buddhism, which is expressed by the calmness of Subhadra in the sculpture. The purpose of Buddhism is to practice into Buddha, entering the nirvana world that never reincarnates and escape the suffering of the samsara. Buddhism believes that the body's death is not a real death, because the spirit is still non-stop reincarnation. Death is the end of one phase, and the beginning of another phase. Once born again will be the causal relationship of past lives, that is, reincarnation. Calm is relative to the world

Buddha believes that the world is painful and unfortunate. Only through attaining nirvana can all difficulties be ended. The most important teachings in Buddhist is its "causal" theory. This theory holds that the result of people in this life is determined by the virtue of the past. So it will be reborn into humans, dogs or pigs. The casual and effects in the previous incarnation lead to the miseries in this life, and people should bear the miseries. Only by following the fate can people go to heaven after death.

On the other hand, the expression of the sculpture, The Death of the Buddha, is deeply influenced by Gandhara Buddhist. The art of Gandhara Buddhist was developed under the influence of Greek art during Kushan period when Theravada Buddhism changed to Mahayana Buddhism. Gandhara Buddhist sculpture mostly rely on Buddhist architecture. For the need of Buddhism on idolatry, Gandhara Buddhist sculpture came into being .Born in sixth Century BC, Buddhism developed from Gandhara to idolatry. Early Buddhism in India was idol-free. And when Buddhism was introduced into Chinese, No idol worship evolved into idol worship in Gandhara. This period is called the "no image worship". This shows that the eternal realm of Nirvana Buddha is considered invisible existence, or at least "beyond human existence".

In 257 BC, Buddhism begun to spread in Gandhara. When came to Kushan period, the India Buddhism evolved from Ministry of Buddhism to Mahayana Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhism thought Shakya Mani was only one of the temporary incarnations of the Tathagata. The Buddha in the future, Bodhisattva, was to show the Savior of humanoid beings to save the world or the humanity of God. This concept was consistent with the preemption of traditional popular religions in Gandhara region of Greece and Rome. More and more Believers worshipped the statue of Buddha, and in order to let the Buddhist worship and work as a religious doctrine for the Buddhists, there came more and more creations of the statues of Buddha. This is also the theoretical source for the first time in the Gandhara Buddha was created.

The sculpture, the Death of the Buddha, also fully demonstrated the characteristics of all Buddhist carvings that were abounding at the Kushan period. And this is the feature of the contents of India Buddhism and the engraving art of Greece and Rome. The first prototype of the Buddha statue came from the Indian god. But in gandhara, the creation of Buddha also absorbed more Greek statues and reliefs styles. The modelling of Gandhara Buddhist is a more realistic human of the Greek Rome art, adding a symbol of India Buddhist. Typically, the Buddha wore the through-shoulder dressing with clothes fold and down, which gives a strong three-dimensional sense. In addition, the clothing lines tend to tilt down from the upper left corner. The hair was wavy or scroll. The nose beam and the forehead are the frontline with concave head high nose and thin lips.

All the features of the Buddha can be seen in the engraving of this period, for example, Brahma-Heaven Entreating Buddha to Preach. The overall shape of this ancient works is simple and plain. Corinth stone of the ancient Greek style stands at both ends. Between the two is "Brahma advised scene". The left and right sides of the Buddha statues are, respectively, Indra and Brahma. As to the top left and right, there are another four men clasped and respectfully invite Buddha to explain Buddhism. Another similar sculpture characteristics can be found in the creation of Nirvana and Jhapita and War for Buddha’s relics. The statue consists of three episodes of Buddhist Scripture. The picture on the right is the scene of the nirvana of the Buddha. The middle of the picture is the scene of the cremation. The left picture is embossed and half missing, describing the scenes of the tribes fighting for the Buddha bone, which is about to trigger the war. These two sculptures have the same methods of expression in terms of characterization with the Death of Buddha. The figures of the face and the dress are the similar with those in the Death of Buddha.

In conclusion, this statue has a lot of Buddhist significance. First of all, it fully demonstrated the multi-element mix of the Buddhist tribe's transformation in different periods. Second, this statue conveys the Buddhist view of life and death. In the end, this Buddha statue tells the world to go through the calmness of Buddha Nirvana and do not have to be sad to leave.

Bibliography

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Arifuku, Kogaku. The Immortality of the Soul and the Problem of Life and Death in the Zen-Buddhist Thought of Dogen. Progress, Apocalypse, and Completion of History and Life after Death of the Human Person in the World Religions. Springer Netherlands, 2002:22-39.

Baugher, John Eric. "Facing Death: Buddhist and Western Hospice Approaches." Symbolic Interaction 31.3(2008):259-284.

Cheema, Iqtidar Karamat. "The Historical Origins and Development of Gandhara Art." International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culturev.8(2007):75-791

Velde, P.J.C.L. van der. "Buddhist Death." Leerstoel Vergelijkende Godsdienstwetenschappen (2011).

Coningham, R. A. E. "The archaeology of Buddhism." Archaeology and World Religion: 60–95, ed. T. Insoll. London: Routledge. (2001).

Hirakawa, Akira. "The Rise of Mahayana Buddhism and Its Relationship to the Worship of Stupas." (1963).

Joyce, T. A. "Gandhara Sculpture: The Conception of Buddha." British Museum Quarterly 7.2(1932):54-55.

Kapleau, Philip. "The Wheel of Death: A Collection of Writings From Zen Buddhist and Other Sources on Death--Rebirth--Dying." Buddhism(1972).

Langer, R. "Buddhist rituals of death and rebirth: Contemporary Sri Lankan practice and its origins." Religious Studies Review 35.1(2007):77-77.

Saddhatissa, Hammalawa. The life of the Buddha. Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited, 1976.

Salomon, Richard, et al. "Buddhist Reliquaries from Ancient India."Journal of the American Oriental Society 124.1(2004):199.

Sewell, Jack. "Gandhara Sculpture." Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly54.3(1960):10-10.

Walser, Joseph. Nagarjuna in Context:Mahayana Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. Columbia University Press, 2005.

Warraich, Tauqeer Ahmad. "Gandhara Art: An Appraisal." Pakistan Vision (2015).

Williams, P. "Mahayana Buddhism: The doctrinal foundations, second edition." Journal of Asian Studies 50.1(2008).

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