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George Orwell

2019-05-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- George Orwell,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了乔治·奥威尔。乔治·奥威尔是20世纪最具影响力的小说家之一。奥威尔一生坎坷,创作了大量作品,作品主要反映了包括贫困和政治问题在内的重大社会问题。第二次世界大战的灾难让奥威尔对政治极权主义的邪恶有了更深的理解。他后期的作品主要是对这一现象的驳斥和批判。在他的小说中,奥威尔运用寓言的表达方式,有意地将政治讽刺和批评赋予叙事,形成了一种独特的政治小说风格。

George Orwell,乔治·奥威尔,essay代写,作业代写,代写

George Orwell is one of the most influential fiction writers in the 20th century. With a short and troublesome life, Orwell produced a good amount of writing. His works mainly reflect major social problems, including poverty and political issues. The disasters of the World War II especially gave Orwell a deeper understanding of the evilness of political totalitarianism. His later works were mainly to refute and criticize this phenomenon. In his novels, Orwell used the expression of allegory, intentionally assigning political satire and criticism to the narrative, forming a unique style of political fiction. This essay will mainly focus on Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, analyzing in depth the unique forms of Orwell's later novels. Since these two novels were written with the background of socialism-capitalism conflict after the second World War, people are able to generally recognize the meaning behind settings of the novels and their intention to criticize totalitarianism. There are very few fictions writers who have attempted to explore in such depth the political issues and human nature through art. Such depth, together with the unique way of presentation, makes Orwell one of the greatest fiction writers of all time.

Novels are the art of time and space, which are of great significance for the development of the story and the characterization of the figures. Some novelists are often used to meet the needs of a certain expression through the dramatic use of space-time factors (Meyers 93). Orwell's Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four have created astonishing aesthetic effects by breaking the limitation of physical space and time, with the narrative perspective of time-space dislocation.

Animal Farm adheres to the western tradition of allegorical creation since ancient times. Featuring different types of farm animals as the protagonists of the story, it tells an easy-to-understand allegory (Dwan 656). Farm animals overthrow the rule of man, set up their own animal rule, wanting to be free from working for humans. However, contrary to their wishes, the animals, despite being rid of human rule, were under stricter exploitation and oppression by the pigs. Napoleon the boar, the farm’s ruler, places himself on the high ground, working with other pigs to violate the "Seven Commandments (Orwell 9)", the contract of equality among all animals. It is rewarded with pleasure and enjoys brutal domination and bloody massacre of other animals.

Reading the story, readers will feel sorry for the miserable fate of Snowball, Boxer and other animals, angry at the extreme rule of pigs and their lies. Readers will not take the initiative to map the animal's words and deeds to the human world, but unconsciously, they cannot get rid of the unconscious and continuous self-reflection while reading, which is the magic of Orwell’s writing. Unexpected changes in human nature will occur when boundless desires are inflated. Under any totalitarian rule, the structure of human society and the animal society from the novel are parallel. They are all the same tyrants and accomplices. There are also ones with miserable fantasies, indifferent wise men, such as Benjamin the donkey. Most of the animals in the farm are ignorant fools, just like most of us people in the human society.

Written in 1948, Orwell placed the story in 1984 (Stephens 78). In 1984, the story of Winston Smith unfolds in Oceania, a fictional superpower of the future. In a highly empowered nation, everyone must obey and serve the “big brother," a supreme ruler (Orwell 2). All people are subjected to the monitoring of the telescreens, bugs, and the Thought Police. People are watching others while they are being watched themselves, having no idea of it. Anyone deemed to be a rebel against the big brother will somehow "be evaporated from the society. People of the Oceania have completely lost their dignity and freedom, and have become the object of selflessness (Stephens 79). Being aware of the corrupt and inhumane system, Smith has tried to resist a variety of absurd, irrational, unconventional social phenomena, but in the end, he cannot escape from the Big Brother’s control, eventually tortured to death.

Readers of this absurd story see the horror of a totalitarian, becoming more prepared about the sadness of human nature and the development of the future world. The readers will not consider the novel as a historical record or prophecy. However, some of the phenomena in the Oceania seem to have appeared in reality. The thought police seem to be the demons in the heart of the people. The fate of Smith is the disaster brought to mankind by the totalitarian rule. Orwell rewrote the historical time to occur in 1984 instead of 1948, a somewhat arbitrary adjustment that made the number "1984" a metaphor for the future (Stephens 80). The novel is constructed beyond time really, as readers do go and explore the real history. Instead, they think about the hidden truths behind the novel. This is another characteristic of Orwell's fable novels. They address the thought-provoking social reality beyond time and space.

Orwell uses temporal and spatial dislocation to achieve his unique expression, allowing readers to think within the symbolic space and time. In Animal Farm, the challenge of animals to mankind is in fact a portrayal of the struggle among different groups of people and interest groups. Mankind lives forever in such an environment full of conflict and oppression. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, whether it is 1948 or 1984 is not important. What is important is the cruelty of rulers to repress human nature. Therefore, the audience do not actively seek traces of reality through the story. On the contrary, they can feel an unprecedented sense truth and reality in the seemingly subtle and ambiguous context. In Orwell’s novels, the context and language are constantly hinting on the central metaphor of the story. Language can be a tool, an ideological tool. Orwell's in-depth description of the ruling class language games in Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four shows the hegemony and ideological nature of language.

Over their defeat of mankind, animals announced the "The Seven Commandments" of the farm. This is the expressions and symbols of the animals’ pursuit of equality and freedom. They have worked together in this direction. However, to establish his dominance in the farmstead, to enjoy the best supply of food and to have absolute power, Napoleon must erase the Commandments from the animals’ memories and control their thoughts. Recognizing the importance of propaganda and the power of public opinion, Napoleon pigs revised the farm's Commandments to pave way for the pigs’ rule over other animals (Orwell 35). Reasonable and legitimate statement. Adding to the Commandment "All animals are equal", Napoleon puts a “but” to the end, claiming that some animals enjoy more rights than others. At the same time, Beasts of England, an everyday song of animals singing about their revolutionary passion and longing for a better future, was replaced by Comrade Napoleon (Orwell 36), a poem praising the leadership of the pig. This poem tells all animals to give all their gratitude to Napoleon and show him forever loyalty.

In the conversion of slogans, Napoleon realized its ideological instillation, and Comrade Napoleon became a manifestation of the mental states of all farm animals. Finally, "four legs good, two legs bad!" was replaced by " four legs good, two legs better (Orwell 51)!" The pig completed the final transformation, all aligned to mankind, restoring the cheating, crushing and slaughtering of animals prior to the revolution. Here, Orwell expressed his unique opinion on the relationship between language and power. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, Orwell pointed out more directly and sharply the nature of language hegemony. From the opening of the novel, Oceania is full of slogans: "War is peace, freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength (Orwell 6)." This is the "truth" that Oceanian citizens must follow. Obviously, these three sentences are absurd and anti-human. However, most people do not have a clear understanding of it at all. They listen day after day about the report of telescreen’s reports on people's abundance and happiness. Everyone believes that "Big Brother" is a savior, and respects him as an idol. Both ordinary citizens and party members are subject to the party's ideological control. Although they are cautious and afraid of making mistakes, the thought police are ubiquitous and pervasive. They can often find some proofs of rebellion, making people inexplicably disappear. The citizens of Oceania are just like the animals of the animal farm, in constant danger and an invisible prison of thought.

Both Napoleon the pig and big brother" achieve the purpose of promoting self-awareness and control of power through dominating language. They are well aware that the subtlest, the most imperceptible, are therefore the most irresistible way of oppressing people. Language has always been the scene of intense competition among various powers and interests. In Orwell’s novels, the nature of language as a political tool is clearly revealed. Language is sometimes even considered equivalent to power. It is one of the most important means totalitarian politics penetrates the common people's mind.

In both Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, the major point of the stories is not about the stories themselves. However, readers get a genuine sense of power through the incredible setting and perfect narration of stories. This is an amazing feature of Orwell 's writing style, which has been the accumulation of years of life experience and previous writings. An artistic narrative discourse is able to reach the height of philosophy, making Orwell one of the greatest fiction writer of all time. Orwell began to focus on how to represent the nature of the world through writing. Language, either natural or fabricated, is the fundamental means in controlling ideology and manipulating the public (Meyers 105). Between countries, the competition among various interest groups can no longer rely solely on wars, as the competition in the field of thinking becomes even more important (Meyers 101). The greatness of Orwell’s thinking is reflected again. The modern world of information control and media monopolization is exactly the future predicted by Orwell.

Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four tell the rebellion of the farm animals and the miserable experiences of Smith respectively. However, the narrative and incredible plot of the stories are not the point. They are merely a fancy coating (Dwan 666). According to Orwell, his purpose of writing is not to tell people a touching story, but to reveal the negative impact of modern warfare and technological civilization, the plight of the modern people and the roots of social diseases (Dwan 660). This sense of purpose is beyond most fiction writers. This also explains the absurd fable forms of his novels: the unique presentation of the stories is merely to reveal the truth more effectively.

By the end of Animal Farm, Orwell's one sentence both brilliantly and profoundly illustrates the point of the entire novel: “No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which (Orwell 55).” The collusion between animals and human beings in fact satirizes that humans, like animals, are subject to basic instincts and desires, and cannot get rid of their greedy nature. Nineteen Eighty-Four directly depicts the darkness of the future of mankind. In Oceania, it seems reasonable and orderly for the four departments, Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love and Plenty (Orwell 7). However, these department are doing the exact opposite of their names. How ironic is that. In this kingdom, people can only live in lies, as the truth is forbidden. The fate of pursuing the truth is death, and the atmosphere of terror seeps through the entire Oceania. Orwell applied a metaphorical way of revealing that totalitarian rule means to a total loss of humanity and would lead mankind to despair.

From the above analysis, both novels by Orwell unfold their narration with the method of time and space dislocation, deeply exposing the association between language and power. The novel narratives are accompanied with allegory of criticism, successfully achieving Orwell's ideal way of writing. In a way, Orwell is revolutionary: he has successfully transformed political writing into an art. By doing so, Orwell is able to lead the readers in the fictional world to consciously focus on the present reality, the plight of human beings as individuals and groups, and the future development of the world. Orwell’s critical thinking, acute observations, and perfect application of skills make his work among the most valuable novels ever written. Meanwhile, his sense of responsibility as a human being and a writer is another reason for his greatness.

Works Cited

Dwan, David. "Orwell's Paradox: Equality in Animal Farm." ELH, vol. 79, no. 3, 2012, pp. 655-683.

Meyers, Jeffrey. "George Orwell and the Art of Writing." The Kenyon Review, vol. 27, no. 4, 2005, pp. 92-114.

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. [Online]. Accessed from: http://www.tax-freedom.com/animal_farm.pdf

Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. [Online]. Accessed from: http://www.planetebook.com/ebooks/1984.pdf

Stephens, Piers H. G. "Nature and Human Liberty: The Golden Country in George Orwell's 1984 and an Alternative Conception of Human Freedom." Organization and Environment, vol. 17, no. 1, 2004, pp. 76-98.

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