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The argument of bilingual education

2019-05-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The argument of bilingual education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了双语教育。双语教育可以满足少数民族学生的需要,他们还不精通英语,这可以使他们的英语学习更有效。另外,通过打破英语占主导地位的教育体制,揭示教育资源分配不均的问题,推动双语教育的发展,可以保护少数民族学生的受教育权。最后,双语教育可以提醒公众重新思考英语和英语文化在社会中的主导地位,并有助于打破这种隔离。

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The argument of whether adopting bilingual education in American schools is prevalent among scholars. The bilingual education here mainly refers to educating minority students different subjects’ knowledge in their native language firstly and then, when they have a sufficient grasp of English, they could be instructed in the normal way. In terms of this educational issue, some scholars hold a negative opinion about it. Their main arguments could be divided into two parts. Firstly, the bilingual education may hinder students’ capabilities of English improvement. What is more, students who accept the bilingual education in the school may show bigger switching costs to the mainstream society since "segregation" difficulty are circumvented (Bethell, 1979). However, some researchers argued that students could grasp the English and other subjects’ knowledge better with the assistance of their mother tongue. Additionally, the bilingual education is respectful to the culture varieties and the minority groups’ equal rights.

For scholars who against the bilingual education, they suggest that although the bilingual education may speed students’ learning of other subjects with the assistance of the first language at the beginning, their capabilities of English improvement will be hindered. What is more, educating minority students in their first language may divide them from other group students actually, which is not beneficial to the public acceptance of cultural varieties. Finally, once the students leave the educational system, this group of students who accept the bilingual education may show bigger switching costs to the mainstream society since "segregation" difficulty is circumvented.

However, firstly, it seems that bilingual education could meet the needs of students who are not yet proficient in the English language and could enable children’s English learning more effectively (Bale, 2013). López and Tashakkori’s research reveals the effects of two-way and transitional bilingual programs on the academic performance and attitudes of students are positive (2006). What is more, it is significant to realize that no recent research has found English-only approaches to be more effective at teaching English. Actually, most program model comparisons have shown bilingual models to be more effective for the acquisition of English (Bale, 2013). Besides the learning of English, Gablasova’s research shows the choice of the first language or the second language can constrain students' ability to express the knowledge they have to a certain extent (2014). Especially for children, the abandoning of their first language in the early study will damage their ability to accept different subjects’ knowledge and their academic performance.

Furthermore, the bilingual education could protect minority students’ educating rights actually. Bethell’ research criticizes bilingual education model since there are so many students who still keep bilingual education in the high grade, which reveals these kinds of students are significantly limited in their English-speaking ability (Bethell,1979). Nevertheless, Hong’s paper reveals that non-Chinese-speaking minority students in the northwest, especially the rural non-Chinese-speaking minority students benefit from a relatively complete bilingual education system in the transition to senior secondary (2010). Furthermore, Christoffel's finding suggests the bilingually educated students enjoy the greater cognitive flexibility and holds less focused scope of attention, which enable them to show smaller switching costs to the mainstream society (Christoffels,2015).

Actually, students’ relative insufficient English development in bilingual education seems more due to the limited educational resources rather than the deficiencies of bilingual education itself. In the reality, students’ right to be educated in their home language is hard to be achieved since the unequal educational resources distribution. The deficiencies of bilingual education seem to be an excuse of overlooking the relative bad learning results that come from insufficient educational resources. In 2015, the Urban Institute reported that 70 percent of emergent bilinguals are concentrated in urban and poor areas’ schools. These bilingual education programs are usually in limited financial supports and consist of poorly trained staff (Bale, 2013). As a result, students’ academic performance from these programs could not be guaranteed. Moreover, inconsistencies between school districts in bilingual education curricula; problems in student assessment measures; the lack of teacher professional development and collaboration, all of these factors have hindered the bilingual education’s positive results (Gallo, 2008).

Finally, Scholars who hold a positive attitude towards bilingual education in American schools argues that the greatest barrier of minority students’ scholastic achievement in schools is the English-dominant culture that creates an unequal environment to minority students who speak their native language in the home (Bale, 2013). The impelling of bilingual education could create a culture diversity environment and improve the acceptance of cultural varieties. It seems reasonable to question that the whole educational system in a multi-national country, such as America, only relies on the dominant language English. This English dominant culture and environment are unequal to minority groups’ equal educational right. The bilingual education programs aim to promote multiculturalism and diversity through language (Gallo,2008). The emergent bilingual education may lead the public to rethink of the segregation and anti-immigrant racism.

In conclusion, this article holds a positive attitude towards the bilingual education. Firstly, the bilingual education could meet the needs of minority students who are not yet proficient in the English language and could enable their English learning more effectively from many research’s supports. What is more, the impelling of bilingual education could protect minority students’ educational rights through breaking up the English dominant educating system and revealing the unequal educational resources distribution issue. Finally, the bilingual education could remind the public to rethink the dominant position of English and English culture in the society and assist the breaking of the segregation.

Reference:

Bale, Jeff. “The fight for bilingual education.” International Socialist Review, 2013. Available at https://isreview.org/issue/69/fight-bilingual-education

Bethell, Tom. “Against Bilingual Education.” The Modern Language Journal, vol. 63, no. 5/6, 1979, pp. 276–280.  Available at http://0-www.jstor.org.libus.csd.mu.edu/stable/324235?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Christoffels, Ingrid, et al. "Two Is Better Than One: Bilingual Education Promotes the Flexible Mind." Psychological Research, vol. 79, no. 3, May 2015, pp.371-379. Available at http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=9d3b7ff1-4462-4d05-bf39-eb4b517acc6c%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=101643149&db=buh

Gablasova, Dana. "Issues in the Assessment of Bilingually Educated Students: Expressing Subject Knowledge through L1 and L2." Language Learning Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, 01 Jan. 2014, pp. 151-164. Available at http://0-web.a.ebscohost.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=f3a3299e-164a-46d8-afe3-a65e8a89040e%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=EJ1029728&db=eric

Gallo, Yadira. "Crisis in the Southwest." Multicultural Education, vol. 16, no. 2, Winter2008, pp. 10-16. Available at http://0-web.a.ebscohost.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=0bd6683d-e9f4-4262-9c69-d5eda27d8fa3%40sessionmgr4010&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=36932748&db=ehh

Hong, Yanbi. "Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China." Chinese Education and Society, vol. 43, no.  1, 01 Jan. 2010, pp. 24-35. Available at http://0-eds.a.ebscohost.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=1000f41e-fa2f-438d-940d-52920e81d689%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=BAS289485&db=bas

López, M., G., &Tashakkori, A. (2006). Differential outcomes of two bilingual education programs on English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(1), 123-132,134-145,238-239. Available at https://0-search-proquest-com.libus.csd.mu.edu/docview/222020817?accountid=100

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