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Environmental justice in the United States

2019-04-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Environmental justice in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的环境正义。环境正义兴起于20世纪80年代,当时美国的黑人因为垃圾倾倒问题而提出抗争,引发美国社会公众与学者的声援,进而提出了环境正义这个新的伦理概念。环境正义给环境政策博弈中的每个参与主体带来了很大的变化,揭示了环境利益通常表现为强势群体的利益。恰当的环境正义理论有着极大的实践和指导意义,为有效解决生态危机提供了一种崭新的方法。

Environmental justice,美国环境正义,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The study of environmental justice emerged in the 1980s, when the black people in the United States raised a protest over the garbage dump, which triggered the solidarity of the American public and scholars, and then put forward the new ethical concept of environmental justice. This paper mainly focuses on the concept of "environmental justice" in the United States and the environmental justice movement in the United States, and evaluates the content and application of environmental justice in the United States. Environmental justice brings changes to every participant in the game of environmental policy. Environmental justice pays more attention to and emphasizes the phenomenon and correction of the injustice of the dominant group to the disadvantaged group in the distribution of environmental benefits. Environmental justice reveals that environmental interests are usually manifested as the interests of powerful groups. Environmental justice is concerned with the environmental coercion faced by groups in different economic and cultural contexts and its solutions; Environmental justice applies the principle of equality in addressing environmental rights and obligations. Proper environmental justice theory is of great practical and guiding significance, which provides a new method for effectively solving the ecological crisis and has direct guiding and practical significance for the construction of China's environmental justice theory and environment-friendly society.

The issue of justice is a universal issue in today's society. Every specific field of contemporary society involves the issue of justice, such as economy, politics, law, international relations, education and culture. To pay special attention to "environmental justice" is nothing more than the following two points: first, the limited nature of environmental problems highlights the importance of fairness and justice. Because environmental problems mainly consist of resource exhaustion and environmental pollution. The finiteness of the earth cannot be changed without controlling population and economic development. And whose freedom and development is restricted is a matter of justice. The limitation of environmental resources highlights the justice of distribution. Second, environmental problems are public. The solution of environmental problems requires the common action of mankind, and fairness is the premise of unified action. The issue of environmental justice not only further expands the new pattern of the development and change of the relationship between man and nature, but also marks the deepening of the understanding or reflection on the causes of the ecological crisis and the solutions.

At first, the term "environmental justice" was considered to contain the connotation of "interracial justice". For example, in his book named "environmental justice", Peter Wenz included "the principle of justice between man and nature" into the scope of environmental justice research. In the study of environmental justice in China, some researchers also call environmental justice "human justice", which means "human beings treat nature fairly in the process of realizing and satisfying their own interests". It was not until the "environmental justice" movement broke out in the United States that the term "environmental justice" was increasingly used to refer to "social injustice caused by environmental factors".

At present, the definition of environmental justice in the academic circle refers to the efforts made to realize the environmental fairness of various groups in the society. Robert d. Bullard divided environmental justice into three types: procedural justice, geographic justice and social justice. Procedural justice refers to the issue of fairness, that is, the extent to which the laws, regulations, evaluation standards and enforcement activities of social management are implemented in a non-discriminatory manner. Geographic justice refers to the choice of hazardous waste disposal sites in communities of color and the poor. Social justice is about how social factors such as race, ethnicity, class and political power affect and reflect environmental decisions.

As a hot topic of public policy in the United States today, environmental justice is committed to addressing the needs and environmental problems of all communities. The us environmental protection agency defines environmental justice as follows: "environmental justice" means that all citizens, regardless of race, color, nationality and property status, should be treated fairly and participate effectively in environmental decision-making in the formulation, application and implementation of environmental laws, regulations and policies. "Fair treatment" means that no group, regardless of racial, ethical, and socioeconomic differences, should unreasonably bear the negative environmental consequences of industrial, municipal, and commercial activities, as well as federal, state, and local environmental programs and policies. "Effective participation" means that every community that may be affected has an appropriate opportunity to participate in decisions that will affect their environment or health; Public opinion can influence the decision-making of the legislative branch; The opinions of all participants should be taken into account in the decision-making process; Decision makers facilitate the participation of potential affected persons. The EPA is particularly concerned about the harmful effects of the environment on the health of certain communities. These communities are overburdened and exposed to inappropriate environmental hazards and risks compared to the rest of the United States. These communities, whether urban or rural, are mostly communities of minorities and low-income people, and are also places of environmental injustice, thanks to the continuing influence of historical causes such as overt discrimination, negative race-neutral licensing and regulatory action.                                                                                                                      

The academic and official definitions are very close, which indicates that the American society has reached a consensus on the concept of environmental justice.

Many environmental justice activists also give the connotation of environmental justice is very broad, think environmental justice refers to all people, regardless of age, race, culture, gender, or economic, social status, have a safe, healthy, energetic, the sustainable development of environment rights, it includes biological, physical, social, political, aesthetic, and economic environment. Environmental justice requires that these rights be freely exercised through self-practice and the empowerment of individuals and communities, whereby the identity, needs and dignity of individuals and groups are preserved, realized and respected.

The environmental justice movement was founded in 1982 by Warren County Protest. For the first time, warren's protest drew a strong social reaction by linking race, poverty and the environmental consequences of industrial waste. Many professionals and non-professionals concerned with the problems of minority communities have begun to conduct further investigations and disclosed many relevant materials and facts that were little known in the past. The event kicked off the environmental justice movement.

In October 1991, the first naacp environmental leadership summit was held in Washington. After much debate, the delegates agreed to adopt 17 "principles of environmental justice" as the purpose of their action, and formally declared the different positions of "environmental justice" activists and mainstream environmentalists. The famous environmental activist Diana alston said, "for us, the environment... It cannot be explained narrowly. The environment in our eyes is interwoven with social, racial and economic justice as a whole. In our opinion, environment is where we live, work and play. The environment provides us with a forum to comment on the issues of our time: issues of military and defence policy, religious freedom, cultural survival, sustainable energy development, the future of our cities, transport, housing, land and sovereignty, the right to self-determination, employment... We can go on and on and on." Obviously, this is a completely different view of the environment from the mainstream environmentalism. It not only links environmental problems with social problems, but also makes it interwoven with social politics.

The "environmental justice" movement reflects the immediate needs of the American underclass, especially communities of color, but it also reflects the different perceptions of the environment among ethnic groups in different cultural contexts. From a certain perspective, the environmental justice movement can be said to be an extension of the civil rights movement, and the problem it requires to solve is fundamentally a social justice problem. However, from another perspective, when environmental justice activists put such a social issue into the perspective of environmental protection, it has a deeper connotation. On the other hand, environmental crisis is a crisis closely related to social crisis, fundamentally speaking, they are a crisis.

In the late 1990s, environmental justice became an emerging theme in environmental policy discussions. In the 21st century, this issue has become the most important part of environmental policy, and special compensation measures have even been developed or started to be implemented. Sociologists, especially political sociologists, have suggested a range of theories to explain the formation of just policies.

Many would argue that the question of how justice is possible is more of an academic question than a practical one. Any substantive concept of environmental justice must answer the question: who is the "recipient" of environmental justice? What exactly is allocated? How?

Some domestic researchers believe that the essence of environmental justice is the issue of distributive justice, and the key of distributive justice is how to allocate resources. On the whole, however, these views lack strong support for the theory of distributive justice. In contrast, foreign researchers have begun to study environmental justice from the perspective of distributive justice theory and have made new progress. In contemporary western countries, rawls reaffirms the basic theory of liberalism on the basis of the principle of justice. His "justice as equity" contains a strong egalitarian connotation, which provides an important theoretical reference for solving the problem of benefit and responsibility sharing in environmental problems.

Rawls's theory of justice is mainly composed of two principles of justice: "the first principle is that everyone should have an equal right to a similar system of freedom compatible with the broadest system of basic freedoms possessed by others. Second principle: social and economic inequalities should be arranged in such a way as to suit the best interests of the fewest beneficiaries, consistent with the principle of store of justice; It depends on the opening of positions and positions to all under conditions of equal opportunity and equity." The first is the principle of freedom and equality. The second includes the "principle of difference", which is suitable for the best interests of the least beneficiaries, and the "principle of equal opportunity", whose position and position are open to all. Rawls also arranges the priority of these principles, that is, the first principle takes precedence over the second principle, while the "equal opportunity principle" takes precedence over the "difference principle". From this, we can see the two basic points of rawls's justice theory: first, everyone has equal freedom and rights, must be treated fairly, and all opportunities should be open to every member of society; Second, justice must be "in the best interests of the least favored". In other words, all policies must benefit those at the most disadvantaged in society so that the most vulnerable in society benefit most from the social distribution process. From the second point of view, rawls changed the general view of justice from "justice in line with everyone" to "justice in line with the best interests of the least benefited", and regarded the meeting of the interests of vulnerable groups as the standard to measure whether a society is just, which is rare in the past liberal theories.

According to rawls's theory, all decisions on international environmental issues should favor developing countries as the weak, and resources should be distributed according to the principle of meeting the interests of the poor. Drawing on rawls's theory of justice, we can establish the ethical principle of justice within the generation as follows: first, the principle of survival first. Due to the serious inequality between the rich and the poor in the world as well as the inequality in the distribution of interests and victimization, the implementation of environmental policies should give priority to survival and give developing countries space and resources for development. When it comes to international relations, environmental interests should be tilted in favor of developing countries. Developed countries should help developing countries eradicate poverty and provide corresponding funds and technologies. Second, the principle of fairness. That is to ask all countries in the world to shoulder their environmental responsibilities fairly. However, this fairness does not require every country and individual to shoulder the same responsibility. Although environmental protection is the common responsibility of mankind, it should be treated differently in the responsibility sharing. Developed countries should shoulder more responsibilities. Rawls's theory of justice provides necessary theoretical basis for environmental justice theory.

In 1991, the People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit was held in Washington, dc, and the issue of Environmental justice was formally raised. Its basic programme contains 17 principles. Its main contents include the following six points: environmental justice guarantees the sanctity of the earth mother, the unity of the ecosystem, the interdependence of all species and the right to be free from ecological damage; Environmental justice requires that public policy be based on respect for and justice for all people, without any form of discrimination or prejudice; Environmental justice calls for the protection of people from nuclear tests, toxic or hazardous wastes and poisons, and from nuclear tests that threaten their fundamental rights to clean air, land, water and food; Environmental justice ensures the fundamental right of all people to political, economic, cultural and environmental self-determination; Environmental justice calls for the cessation of the production of toxic substances, hazardous wastes and radioactive substances. Environmental justice requires that all people have the right to participate as equal partners in decision-making at all levels, including needs and assessments.

In fact, the principle of environmental justice further reveals that environmental justice is a problem of social justice, which involves rights, needs, distribution, national system, policy making and many other fields. To sum up the above principles of environmental justice, I think the following aspects have the following connotations:

Social development should be "people-oriented". In modern society, the meaning of sharing and benefiting universally means that every member of society should share the fruits of social development, the basic needs of every member of society should be continuously satisfied, and their living standards should be correspondingly improved. Limit the development of production to the extent that it can meet the needs of all, and end the condition of satisfying others at the expense of some. All share in the benefits created by all, and through urban and rural integration, all members of society are developed in an all-round way.

People have dignity after they break away from the animal kingdom and become self-conscious. Human dignity is gradually strengthened with the gradual evolution of society. In the process of China's modernization, such dignity should be possessed by every individual, especially when the dignity of a social group is trampled upon, resulting in the loss of basic human dignity. It can be seen that maintaining the dignity of every member of society is the basic function of justice in the modern sense. Obviously, respect, equality and freedom have become the most basic concepts and important contents of justice in the modern sense.

Opportunity refers to the possibility space for social members to survive and develop. Equality of opportunity refers to the principle that social members should follow when solving the problem of how to own opportunities as a resource: equal ones should be treated equally, and unequal ones should be treated unequally. Equality of opportunity has two meanings: one is the equality of the starting point of survival and development; Second, equality of opportunity realization process itself. As an important value orientation, the principle of equality of opportunity provides broad choice and effective development space for social members, thus stimulating the vitality of modern society and improving the quality of social progress.

The rational allocation of existing social resources most directly reflects the principle of justice. In the process of the formation of social wealth and other resources, the quantity, quality and production factors of labor input by each social member are different, and their specific contributions to society are different. Differential distribution according to the specific contribution of each member of society reflects the concept of equality and freedom, and fully respects and recognizes the individual's different contributions to society.

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