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The characteristics of British political system and political culture

2019-04-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The characteristics of British political system and political culture,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的政治制度特点和政治文化。英国在世界上最早实行资本主义的国家,在政治上虽然没有成文法的颁布,但是其经过历史检验的君主立宪的政治制度,带给英国一个相对稳定的政治局面,政治体制也没有太大的动荡。形成这一独特的现象的原因应该与英国独特的传统文化有着密切的联系。

political system,political culture,essay代写,作业代写,代写

As an old capitalist country, Britain brought the world the impact of atomic bomb with its technology and culture. As an independent island, Britain has a natural barrier of sea with other continents, creating a favorable geographical environment for Britain and avoiding frequent wars, so that it can have sufficient time to strengthen itself. The first industrial revolution, marked by the invention of the steam engine, boosted productivity, while Britain had a strong navy, and the narrow domestic market forced it to embark on the path of colonial expansion. "When European religious institutions and feudal separatist forces were rampant, they had established the unique judicial jury system and local management system; When feudalism was generally strengthened in Europe, they launched a bourgeois revolution to destroy the foundation of feudalism.

To understand the British constitutional monarchy, we must first understand the British constitution. Most scholars acknowledge that Britain has a constitution, but it has its own characteristics. Unlike most countries, Britain does not compile a legal document, but consists of scattered constitutional laws, conventions and so on. Foreign scholars call it "unwritten constitution" and "flexible constitution". Only on the basis of understanding the constitution can we have a deeper understanding of the British political system.

As an important organization in Britain, parliament has gradually formed the principle of "parliament first" in its long history. The British parliament is composed of the king, the house of lords and the house of Commons. Although parliament and cabinet hold the real power, the parliament is composed of the king of England, the upper house and the lower house, among which the upper house is the house of lords, which is the only political institution based on aristocracy in major western countries. The king had no real power. After a long struggle between the house of lords, which represented the aristocracy, and the house of Commons, which represented the republic, power was gradually transferred from the house of lords to the house of Commons. The power of the British parliament mainly includes four aspects: legislative power, financial supervision power, administrative supervision power and judicial power. Among them, the judicial power is exclusive to the house of lords, which can hear the cases of aristocrats and impeachment cases of the house of Commons. By law, the legislative power and the power to oversee the government's finances and administration are vested in the house of Commons. The parliament act of 1911 confirmed the political dominance of the house of Commons. As a rule, the prime minister must come from the house of Commons.

In the United Kingdom, the passage of any draft law has to go through the upper and lower houses of parliament and the king's approval before the official public, legal effect. Britain has different legislative procedures for different bills.

After full investigation and study, it is drafted by government ministers and approved by the cabinet, and then submitted to the house of Commons for proposal by the government. The house of Commons is read first, second and third, and finally approved by the king, and becomes the authoritative law. After deliberation in the house of Commons, the draft is also sent to the house of lords for the same first, second and third readings.

Private member motions, it is proposed by backbenchers who are not in government, and it is also subject to a third reading. Bills from private lawmakers are difficult to pass and the deliberation process is complicated. There are usually three ways to propose a bill, namely, drawing lots, no drawing lots and the ten-minute rule. Although bills passed by private lawmakers are difficult to pass in parliament, there have been successful cases, such as the 1965 murder case, the 1967 abortion law and the 1969 divorce law.

Private bill. A private initiative involving private, corporate, and local interests. Its deliberations were the same as those of government bills, and it played an important role in the history of the United Kingdom at a particular time.

The first is the approval of public expenditure, which consists of annual legislative approvals and "consolidated funds". The latter includes the annual salary of the royal family, the interest on the national debt, the speaker of the house of Commons and the salary of the leader of the opposition party. Second, approve the tax plan, according to the country's actual economic situation to determine the tax plan. Third, to examine the public accounts, the public accounts committee, the auditor general and the Treasury are set up to supervise the British finance strictly, which can effectively prevent corruption.

The British monarchy has evolved over a long period of time. In this long development process, the British political system has its unique characteristics.

Traditionally, monarchy and democracy have different meanings. Monarchy usually refers to the rule of the monarch, while democracy refers to the rule by the majority. In theory, no country can be ruled by both a monarch and a people. In the British political system, although the king is retained, in the actual politics, the monarch is only a symbolic head of state and has no actual power. The role of the king is reflected in that all policies and laws of the government should be promulgated by the king before they can be implemented, and the implementation of policies and laws should also be carried out under the supervision of the king. For example, the two countries sign treaties, declare the beginning and end of wars and appoint prime ministers.

On the other hand, these policies were not decided and enacted by the king alone, but by the parliament or the cabinet. The lower house of parliament is elected by the people, and the cabinet is elected by the parliament. The cabinet is responsible to the parliament and represents the people, which reflects the principle of people's sovereignty and can greatly influence the formulation of national policies. Therefore, British constitutional monarchy is a perfect combination of monarchy and democracy.

The composition of the British parliament is made up of the lords and the Commons, which are elected by the people. Both houses represent the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. Because the reform of the British bourgeoisie appeared earlier, it was influenced by some thinkers at that time, including Locke and montesquieu. Their ideas make the British people's understanding of sovereignty in the people is quite profound.

In Britain, the leading organ of the central government is actually the cabinet headed by the British prime minister. As the highest national administrative organ, the composition and change of the cabinet follow certain principles. The prime minister is the leader of the party or coalition that wins a majority in the house of Commons in Britain's general election.

The two major parties, the conservative party and the labor party, are the dominant parties in British politics. It can be said that they hold the helm of British politics. There are smaller parties besides the big two, but for political and historical reasons, they are hardly a force in British politics today. The British parliament and cabinet can be said to be the parliament and cabinet of a party. No matter which party wins the general election, the party can control the parliament and cabinet.

Britain was the first country to implement capitalism in the world. After a long period of development, it was known as the empire where the sun never sets. Although there was no enactment of statute law in politics, its constitutional monarchy system, which had been tested by history, brought Britain a relatively stable political situation and the political system was not in great turmoil. The reasons for this unique phenomenon should be closely related to the unique traditional culture of Britain.

British conservatism is a conservative force. It is not blindly opposed to progress, but the process of change and the extent of a prudent attitude. When the existing system can be maintained and maintained, it holds its ground firmly and refuses to change; But when the existing system can not meet the needs of reality, it allows a certain degree of change, and on the basis of this new change to hold the ground, become a force against new changes. Therefore, the conservatism of British conservatism is not absolutely conservative. It is more reflected in the protection of tradition and the cautious attitude towards change.

This conservatism can be seen in the British attitude to reform in the glorious revolution. Burke believed that although the glorious revolution of Britain broke the monotony of conservatism, it was not a change in the real sense, because it was not a change but a protection of tradition and a sedate change to protect tradition. British people to protect their traditional, efforts to do historical heritage, so in the met need to change, conservatives are hesitant, because they don't know what will be the outcome of the change, but the countries must reform, so conservative steps and process of reform is a very stable attitude, conservative want change cannot too intense. So British conservatism is not hard-headed, and its attitude to new things is not blind opposition. Their attitude towards the political system is manifested as "new wine in old bottles", adding new changes to the original basis, but the original basic structure does not change. This kind of reserved change is best evidenced by the existence of British Kings and nobles.

Therefore, the British people's attitude towards the aristocracy is not to exclude, but to integrate into it, which is an affirmation of self-worth. When people in the whole society go to an elite class with a positive attitude, then the whole British society is full of noble spirit and elite class, and everyone in the whole society is a gentleman. With the development of democratization, although the special existence of the aristocracy was incompatible with democracy, the British accepted its existence, making them the symbol of the country and no longer giving them political power, but becoming the spiritual pursuit of the whole British people.

Britain is a typical island country. Its territory is made up of the island of Great Britain, northeastern Ireland and more than 5,500 small islands. Geographical location also determines the unique cultural psychology of the British people. This unique cultural psychology is reflected in the inheritance of tradition. Surrounded by the sea, all the British people have a superior geographical position to avoid wars, which leads to the British people attach great importance to the inheritance of history. In politics, the British value tradition and are content with the status quo. Instead of pursuing big reforms, they prefer to follow tradition. The British pay attention to maintain their own characteristics, do not follow the crowd, their own system, has its own characteristics.

The cultural psychology of Britain is mainly reflected in politics, especially in the political system. It is mainly manifested as: the constitutional monarchy of Britain. Because the British were not willing to carry out major reforms, they did not overthrow the feudal monarch, but adopted a new approach to constitutional monarchy. The king became a hypocritical head of state with only symbolic power. In this way, the bourgeois reform was carried out without destroying the tradition. The existence of the house of lords, which represents the aristocracy in parliament, fully embodies a feature of the British political system. The house of lords does not have substantive power. But the British allowed it to exist as a British political institution. The British constitution is an unwritten constitution, which is a manifestation of the psychological culture of the island nation. The British people pay attention to tradition, and often find solutions for some things in the present from the past experience. This has led the British to rely on precedent, custom and experience to replace parts of the role of law. The characteristics of this political system are determined by the particularity of British island culture psychology.

The essence of liberalism is that the power of the state comes from the people, and the purpose of the government is to protect the welfare of the people. Therefore, the power of the government is not absolute, but is limited, not only by the supervision of the people, but also by the various agencies within the government.

Britain was the first country to start the bourgeois revolution. Through the bourgeois revolution and the glorious revolution, the power of the British king was limited, and the groups representing the emerging bourgeoisie gradually became the real power executors. Locke in his book "the theory of government," wrote kingship should be limited, at the same time Locke also believes that granted the power of government comes from the people, according to their own power to sign a contract by the people's government, which mainly emphasizes the sovereignty in people, and the government is just in order to protect people's private property and personal safety. In the exercise of the king's power, Locke pointed out that the king's power should be limited to diplomacy and administration. The power of the king should be limited by parliament, and the people should have the right to overthrow the king if he misrules without considering the interests of the people. After Locke, mill developed Locke's thought and put forward the concept of "limited government", which further embodied the idea that the people loved freedom and restricted the government.

The liberal tradition of Britain allows the people to enjoy the sovereignty of the country while the power of the monarch is limited by law. Although the British king and aristocracy did not have substantial power, they became the unique characteristics of world politics with their own unique charm. The British tradition of advocating liberalism also created a unique political system.

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