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Through education and the creation of equal employment opportunities

2020-07-18 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Through education and the creation of equal employment opportunities,文章讲述在美国,种族歧视一直是一个热门话题。特别是当奥巴马于2008年成为美国第一位黑人总统时,美国的种族问题和种族歧视再次引起人们的关注,并引起了广泛关注,因为美国被认为是最民主,最自由,最理想的国家。种族歧视不再存在的孤独时间。但是Diaconu2010)在他的《种族歧视》一书中声称,在世界上不同种族和文化背景的人的迁徙和流动增加的情况下,种族歧视问题仍然是当今的热门话题(第58页)。 。的确,作为一个大移民国,美国很难在短时间内融化所有文化,这导致种族主义或种族歧视的长期存在,因为不同的文化具有不同的族裔,背景和特征。米克斯(Meeks2010))认为,在日常生活中确实存在种族歧视的各种形式,这绝对会对人造成伤害,并从阶级,年龄,种族和着装角度(CARD)深入探讨了主要的潜在种族歧视案例。 )(第181页)。种族貌相是一个术语,用于描述歧视就业,服务,住房等的基础,或由于种族而给予个人或人群优惠待遇。种族貌相可以说是当前一种新的种族歧视形式。今天在美国,种族貌相是一个潜在的威胁生命的问题,它导致某些人丧失了公民权利。因此,非常有必要探索如何终止种族歧视以促进社会发展并认识到当前种族歧视发展成何种方式。

 

Through education and the creation of equal employment opportunities

Introduction

Racial discrimination has been a heated issue in America. Especially when Obama became the first black president of the United States in 2008, American racial issue and racial discrimination came into people’s eyes again and gave rise to large attention, as America  has been considered to be the most democratic, free and ideal country for a lone time that the racial discrimination would not exist any longer. But in his book Racial Discrimination, Diaconu (2010) claims that the issue of racial discrimination is still a topical subject today under the condition of the increased migration and movement of people of different ethnic origins and cultural background in the world (p. 58). Indeed, America, as a big immigration country, is hard to melt and unite all the cultures in a short time, which contributes to the long-term existence of racism or racial discrimination, because different cultures have different ethnic origins, background and features. Meeks (2010) argues that racial profiling does happen in the daily life every day in many forms that it will absolutely do harm to people, and explores deeply the main potential racial profiling cases from the perspectives of class, age, race and dress (CARD) (p. 181). Racial profiling is a term used to describe the basis of discrimination for employment, services, housing, etc., or to give preferential treatment to an individual or group of people because of their ethnicity. The racial profiling can be said to be a new kind of form of racial discrimination at present. Today in the United States, racial profiling is a potential life-threatening problem that it has resulted in that some people lose their civil rights. Therefore, it is pretty necessary to explore the ways how to terminate the racial discrimination to promote the social development and to realize what the current racial discrimination is developed into.

With the fast development of society, the issue of racial discrimination welcomes new page of life. Today racial discrimination has new major racial and ethnic changes in the United States, which are happening and sweeping in America, because the second generation of the races of Hispanic and Asian groups accounts for all the growth in the whole nation’s youth population (Frey, 2014, p. 136). There are many immigrants including Asians in the United States, whose population occupies certain proportion of the whole American population. With more Asian immigrants in America, that the next generation of the Asians in the United States plays a large role in the whole American youth population, while the next generation of native Americans seem to decline, so it is no doubt that the melting or combination between Asians and Americans tends to increase that race relations of neighborhood segregation, mixed-race marriages or political ramifications in America will be more difficult to identify. With the growing population of immigrants in America, the racial discrimination will be developed into a new page that it may be reduced with the increasing mix of different races. Rose (2014), similarly, explores the new inter-group relations from the perspective of sociology that demographic changes have happened in the persisting patterns recently, such as the “leapfrog’ phenomenon (p. 201). He argues that racial and ethnic relations have new developments today, such as the rise of Islamophobia, the nativist and nationalist movements, or the rise of xenophobia (p. 215). Such the new developments are easy to understand, I think, because today is a multi-cultural world with an increasing globalization. Different races and cultures can meet conflicts, melt or combination during the development of globalization.

Though the racial discrimination in the United States seems to be reduced, it still exists in America in many aspects, such as on the education, employment, shops, income, etc., and it can be reduced or even terminated by strengthening the education. In his book Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal, Hacker (2010) argues and emphasizes that racial inequality still exists in America in the daily, such as family life, education, income and employment, and race accounts for America’s history and will continue to shape its future (p. 146). It is known to us that America’s history can be said to be racial history, as America has been a large immigration country since its discovery. In addition, Blank (2004) puts forward that the size of and extent of racial discrimination can be measured and thus serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunities, although there are many factors contributing to racial discrimination (p. 97). As is known to us or mentioned above, today’s large differences on racial and ethnic groups still exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, health and other areas, but it is great to see that racial discrimination can be evaluated with the social development. By the methods of evaluation of racial discrimination, people can have higher awareness to fight against the racism. Also, by promoting the education, the racial discrimination can be reduced and killed in the end.

On the other hand, with the evolution of racial discrimination, the anti-racial discrimination came into being as well. Solanke (2009) argues that making anti-racial discrimination law is an effective and good way to fight against the racial discrimination (p. 112). Absolutely, it is of great importance that both the laws and liberalism have large influences on anti-racial discrimination. In fact, to deal with racial discrimination, Diaconu argues in his book that racial discrimination is a long-term important problem that needs all kinds of supports from the people and governments (p. 79). Therefore, when speaking of the issue of racism or racial discrimination, it is no wonder that people could not help but ask: why does the racial discrimination still exist in America? How long will it stay in the future? Aren’t there any methods to kill the racial discrimination?

Hypothesis

Racial discrimination is an old and large social issue in America. Overseeing America’s history, there are numerous factors leading to the racial discrimination, including historical factors, geographic factors, the social ideology, the economic factors or the political factors. So I think the racial discrimination can still exist in the United States for a long time and will be developed and evolved into many new forms today. Likewise, with the development of the anti-racial discrimination movements, I predict that the racial discrimination is a long-term and great historical issue to solve and the means of education is a good and effective plus long-term path to terminate the racial discrimination. Also, I hypothesize that making laws and creating equal job opportunities can be good and effective tools as well.

Research Questions

To know whether my hypothesis is right or practical, I would like to explore different perspectives of the termination of racial discrimination. I will analyze beliefs and ideas concerned with the anti-racial discrimination and the current situations of racism. Meanwhile, I will try to explore different ideas from different people on the issue of racial discrimination currently. Then, I would like to explore the specific measures or actions of the means to help terminate the discrimination. I mainly pay attention to the questions: how should we do to help kill racial discrimination by the means of education, making laws or creating equal jobs? Are these three ways practical or effective? Are there other ways to help that?

Finally, I want to explore whether there are things for students to help that. And I think it is meaningful and important to give some suggestions of what to do with the when meeting discrimination personally.  

 

Method

To study the subculture of racial discrimination, I decided to interview the black and white students and a specialist of this field, because I think the black and white students can represent two different races and thus tell their own true feelings about the issue, and the specialist can provide authorized opinions at this filed. At first, I believed that interviewing black and white students would tend to be easier but I found that may students refused me, holding the ideas that they had no time or knew little about the issue. I tried to contact my classmates and friends around me, but they were all reluctant to join me, saying my issue sounded too serious and would make them feel crazy. In addition, I met some problems when contacting specialist. I contacted several specialists first, but they either asked me to email my interview questions and would reply me later or refused me directly by the reason of no time. But through my efforts, I contacted three interviewees eventually. As a Chinese international student here, I know nothing about the racial discrimination of the United States, so I treat the average person equally and can give impartial observations free bias.

The first interview I did was with a black student Jackie from University of Denver. Of all the people I contacted, he is the right person among few people who replied me and agreed to be interviewed. Through the interview, I made a friend with him and learned a lot, because Jackie is very humorous and have done some research about the issue before that he hopes the racism could be killed as soon as possible.

On the next day, I took a second interview with Dr. Brown, a professional socialist. He replied my email and promised my interview with great pleasure. Dr. Brown is pretty knowledgeable and is specialized in the social issues, especially the issue I chose.

Lastly, as is what I wanted and planned, I conducted with a white student Socker in the end. This interview provided me another perspective from the white people. And I believed that his ideas can represent the ideas of most white young people with the development of society.

The interviews and observations conducted above can make me better understand the issue I chose and explore the issue more deeply. I predict that all the interviewees above will be against the racial discrimination as they think the historical issue is not suitable to social development any more.

 

Field Notes

 

Interview 1

When I tried to carry out my interviews among students around me, I did not expect I just received few people’s interest and reply. They either said had no time or said had little realization of the issue. Anyway, a black student Jackie promised me to join in my interview on 1 August 2014.

 

Date of interview: 1-8-2014

Time: 2:30 p.m.

Place:

 

Jackie is a student of University of Denver who did some research on the field and wished the racial discrimination to be terminated. During the interview, I felt enjoyable and learned a lot.

 

Question 1: What do think of the reasons of the long-term existence of racial discrimination? What are its situations now?

 

Answer: Yeah, I don’t think it’s a question. Em, I think the slavery is the most important reason for the result. Now the problem is not so serious with the concepts of democracy and equality deepening people’s hearts.

 

Question 2: Where do you think of the common places that have discrimination? Do you often meet discrimination at present?

 

Answer: Er, many public places can witness the discrimination, such as the bar, the shop, or even the school. When I was a child, I met more discrimination than now.

 

Question 3: Do you think racial discrimination could be killed in the history one day?

 

Answer: Yes, of course, why not! The problem will disappear one day, I think, as it does not adapt to the development of human civilization.

 

Question 4: Do you have any ideas to help terminate the racial discrimination?

 

Answer: As far as I am concerned, there are many anti-racial discrimination movements. I think to solve the problem needs all people’s support from the country.

 

Question 5: Some say promotion of education equal employment is an effective way to help terminate racial discrimination, what do you think of it?

 

Answer: Yes, I quite agree with it. For a long time, you know, we black people are often considered to be uneducated. And this is the result from the lack of education.

 

Interview 2

To research the issue I chose, I planned to schedule my interviews with one specialist. However, only one doctor replied me and agreed with the interview.

 

Date of interview: 2 August 2014

Time: 10:00 a.m.

Place:

 

Dr. Brown is a professional socialist that pays high attention to the social issues for a long time. He is very knowledgeable and does deep researches on the social issues, especially the issue of racial discrimination.

 

Question 1: What do think of the reasons of the long-term existence of racial discrimination? What are its situations now?

 

Answer: Yeah, to tell the truth the issue can continue to exist for a long time today, as the reasons are deeply fundamental in the aspects of history, economy, politics and religion. It’s hard to solve the problem in a short time. As for its situations, it is not so serious as before, but it is performed in many forms in the life.

 

Question 2: Where do you think of the common places that have discrimination?

 

Answer: the discrimination mainly happens in the places which have different races. And the public places, such as the restaurant, the shop, stations, etc., are easy to produce the discrimination as well.

 

Question 3: Do you think racial discrimination could be killed in the history one day?

 

Answer: Yeah, I believe there will be one day when the racial discrimination go the end. But it still needs a long time to go there.

 

Question 4: Do you have any ideas to help terminate the racial discrimination? How to do it specifically?

 

Answer: I think to terminate the racial discrimination mainly needs the hands of government. The promoting education, creating equal job opportunities and making anti-racial discrimination laws are all effective and practical ways to reach the goal. Also, strengthening announcement of equality across the country is a good way.

 

Question 5: What do you think of the discrimination happens in the school?

 

Answer: Er, I think it is normal that the school has the discrimination among students. But we should not allow and bear such the phenomena, because it is easy to make students produce discrimination within their deep heart. And to ban the phenomena needs schools’ and parents’ cooperation to educate the students.

 

Question 6: Can you give some suggestion on how to deal with the discrimination when meeting it?

 

Answer: When facing the discrimination, he or she should keep calm and take reasonable measures to protect himself or herself, such as ask help from the local authority or parents or teachers.

 

Interview 3

I felt very pleased that Socker can participate in my interview as no white people want to join in my interview except for him.

 

Date of interview: 3 August 2014

Time: 4:00 p.m.

Place:

 

Socker is a white student of University of Denver as well. He promised my interview as he is against the racial discrimination, holding the idea that the historical issue of racial discrimination does not adapt to the social development any more.

 

Question 1: What do think of the reasons of the long-term existence of racial discrimination? What are its situations now?

 

Answer: The long-time existence must have its reasons, and I think history is its origins. As for its situations, I think it is better than before.

 

Question 2: Where do you think of the common places that have discrimination?

 

Answer: Er, maybe the public places have more discrimination, I think.

 

Question 3: Do you think racial discrimination could be killed in the history one day?

 

Answer: Yeah, I think so. And I do hope the day can come earlier.

 

Question 4: Do you have any ideas to help terminate the racial discrimination?

 

Answer: Education can be a good way, as education is one of the most important thing in the process of human civilization.

 

Question 5: Some say promotion of education equal employment is an effective way to help terminate racial discrimination, what do you think of it?

 

Answer: I quite agree with it.

 

Analysis

Based on the interviews and secondary research, I found that the America’s historical problem of racial discrimination is still a heated topic giving rise to many people’s attention and eyes and is hard to go to the end in the short time. Also, I hypothesized that racial discrimination would continue to exist for a long time in the future and the means of education, making anti-racial discrimination laws, uniting all supports from people and government and creating equal job opportunities can be good and effective tools to terminate the racial discrimination, and questioned: What is the current situation of racial discrimination? What and where are its forms of existence? Why does the historical problem continue to exist for a long time? Are the ways I hypothesized practical and effective?

As for the first question, I found racial discrimination is not so easy to be killed even in today’s democratic society in the United States. America, as a big immigration country in the world, has many cultures and races, whose ethnic origins and cultural background and features are hard to disappear and be assimilated to American culture in the short time. Thus, it is no wonder that Diaconu (2010) argues in his book Racial Discrimination that the issue of racial discrimination is still an important topical subject today under the condition of the increased migration and movement of people of different ethnic origins and cultural background across the world (p. 58). Racial discrimination has been discussed and studied by many critics for a long time and gave rise to masses of movements in the last century, such as the African-Americans’ civil rights movement. When interviewing with African-American student Jackie his idea toward the long-term existence of racism, Jackie said he understood its long-term existence and knew that the racial discrimination would not disappear in the short time in the future, but he really hopes the racial discrimination could be terminated and the United States has a really equal society (Jackie, personal conversation, 1 August 2014). However, to be frank, America’s history is a racial discrimination history to some extent because of large and fundamental influences of the whiteness ideology and slavery system before.

What and where are its forms of existence? The United States could witness racial discrimination in many aspects in the real life, such as the education, the politics, the salary, the employment, etc. Jackie tells one of his experience meeting the discrimination that he did part-time job in a restaurant, where he got the least salary and awards from his boss (Jackie, personal conversation, 1 August 2014). Indeed, racial discrimination is not so serious compared with that before since the law made to terminate the slavery and ban the racial discrimination in America, but the racial discrimination still does not disappear in many forms. Since Obama became the first black president in America, many people believed that the black people stand up in front of the world in the end and will have few or even no discrimination from then on. However, Jackie said the truth is not like that, although the Caucasians become more open to the African-American people and the discrimination to the African-American people seem not so serious (Jackie, personal conversation, 1 August 2014). As can be noticed and seen, there are still many differences between the African-Americans and the Caucasians on the racial and ethnic groups of employment, income and wealth, housing, education, health and other areas.

Turning into the third question, there are many factors contributing to its long-term existence. When interviewing with Dr. Brown, he tells me that there are too many factors resulting in the racial discrimination and its long-term existence, as Rome is not built in one day (Dr. Brown, personal conversation, 2 August 2014). Apart from the historical factors, there are many other factors from the society, politics, culture and religion. In spite of the various factors, some methods can be used to measure and evaluate the size of and the extent of discrimination and thus promote the reduction of the discrimination and win the equal treatments. In addition, Socker does not understand why the racial discrimination could still exist in the United States, because America is the most democratic country and places the human being rights in the high position (Socker, personal conversation, 3 August 2014). I do agree with what he said and I deeply believe in the idea that each race are the same and all are the sons and daughters of Gods, so all the races should deserve winning the equal treatments and respect whether they are the African-Americans or the Caucasians, the Asians or the Americans.

Finally, the last question can be answered that those ways seem practical and effective. With weeks of study and the interviews, I see that there are many anti-racial discrimination movements in the United States as well. Solanke (2009) argues that making anti-racial discrimination law is an effective and good way to fight against the racial discrimination (p. 112). Making laws is a good and effective way to fight against the racial discrimination, I think, because it not only has compulsory and permanent features, but also it is the official recognition of the anti-racial discrimination. Apart from the making the laws, I hypothesize that promotion of education and equal job opportunities is effectively beneficial to fight against the racial discrimination before. Dr. Brown agrees with my idea, holding the view that promotion of education can both increase their civilization and quality and provide a good platform to strengthen the communications among different races, and equal job opportunities can solve the problems of survival and decline the conflicts (Dr. Brown, personal conversation, 2 August 2014).

 

Conclusion

In my study, I hypothesized that racial discrimination would continue to exist for a long time in the future and the means of education, making anti-racial discrimination laws, uniting all supports from people and government and creating equal job opportunities can be good and effective tools to terminate the racial discrimination. Talking about the large topic, my study has some obvious limitations. First, the number of the people I interviewed is too small, because I have not enough time and many people I try to contact have little interest in my interview by either refusing me directly or replying me no words. Also, the interviewees are all male, and I think it would be better if there are female interviewees. Second, the time restraint of four week class seems to affect my study as well. The large restraint interrupts some of my research and even makes me a little bit tired that I want to give up my study on this topic. Third, the secondary sources I found seem to be limited as for the large topic study of racial discrimination. Because of the limited time, I could only find 6 sources for this study, which seem not some convincing.

The topic is of great important to study, because I found that many social problems and conflicts in the United States result from the racial discrimination and the discrimination can still be witnessed here and there, which I can feel when I come here as an international student. Also, the topic is still very heated and sensitive among the United States. I hope my study can be a reflect to help fight against the America’s historical problem.

 

 

 

 

Reference

Blank, R.M. (2004). “Measuring Racial Discrimination”. (pp. 90-110). New York: National Academies Press.

Diaconu, I. (2010). “Racial Discrimination.” (pp. 55-83). Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing.

Frey, W. H. (2014). “Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remarking America.” (pp. 131-167). Washington: Brookings Institution.

Hacker, A. (2010). “Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal”. (p. 146). London: Scribner; Rep Sub.

Meeks, K. (2010). “Driving While Black: Highways, Shopping Malls, Taxi Cabs, Sidewalks: How to Fight Back if You Are a Victim of Racial Profiling .” (pp. 171-190). New York: Broadway Books.

Rose, P.I. (2014). “They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States-And Beyond”. (pp. 200-220). New York: Paradigm.

Solanke, I. (2009). “Making Anti-Racial Discrimination Law”. (p. 112.) Washington: Routledge.

 

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