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The three main types of imperialism

2020-05-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --  The three main types of imperialism ,本文讲述殖民主义是从“殖民地”一词发展而来的,这意味着超级大国在贫困地区设置了殖民地。为了追求利益和扩大土地,他们将文化和政策强加给无权反对的土著人民,这对当地人民的生活产生了重大影响。更重要的是,在征服过程中,他们有一种裙带关系,使他们认为所有当地人民都应该屈服于自己的优势。从16世纪开始的欧洲殖民时期,随着海洋工业的发展,这些国家的许多探险家开始寻找新的世界。

 

The three main types of imperialism

 

Colonialism develops from the word”colony”, which means the super powers set colonies in poor places. For pursuit of interests and land expansion, they impose their cultures and policies on the indigenous people who had no power to against, which have large impact on the life of local people. What’s more, during conquer process, they have a sense of suoprioty which make them think that all the local people should submit to their superior power. During European colonial period, which started from 16th century, many explorers of those countries came to find new world with the development of marine industry. Several European powers such as Portugal, Spain and Britain became the colony empire continuously. They established colonies in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Let us use Portugal as an example. Portugal’s colonization last about 600 years which was a very long colonization history in the world. Initiated by impulse to fortune, exploit of outside world resources and new ideas about capitalism which came from the European Renaissance, many explores began their adventures. Since then, their steps of colonization did not stop until 19th century when those maritime powers began to disappear. Portugal once was so strong that it possessed Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Americas, the Pacific Ocean (1). British colonies began in 16th, with the same pursue as Portugal and their sense of superiority to spread cultures. The Kingdom of Great Britain came into being in the early 17th, and the range of their territory became bigger. There had different kinds of control in the colonization process, but all of which had an influence on local people’s lifestyle. Since 19th, lots of colonies began to gain independence and the British Empire declined gradually.
When it comes to imperialism which will confuse us because of its similar meaning to colonialism. It is an “unequal human and territorial relationship, usually in the form of an empire, based on ideas of superiority and practices of dominance, and involving the extension of authority and control of one state or people over another”, However, colonialism focus more on the economy and the interests while imperialism is a state policy which indicates the ambition of countries and concentrate on both financial and ideological reasons. If a country want to promote imperialism, It is kind of like the country is the center which manipulating subordinate and peripheral countries. Next, we will focus on the new trade imperialism which happened in 1700s to 1800s, and it arrived its height in the mid of 18th century which was the early Victoria era. It seemed that those colonists lost interest in colonies that was a “burden” to the development of the mother countries. Government was given rights to take measures, impose levy tax, monopolize goods such as opium and salt. In general, there are three aspects about the new trade imperialism. They are less colonies, decentralization of power and free economy development. For example, English withdrew its army in Transvaal and Orange which located in South Africa and used to be colonies of England and England abandoned the opinions of controlling South Africa. What’s more, in 1865, the Committee of South Africa concluded that keeping just one immigrant site while others immigrant sites were removed after listening to many people’s advice. However, the reality was not the same as it was supposed to (2). The reason of abandoning the colonies was not for the free imperialism, it was for the interests of the colonists who wanted to realize the optimum of the interests. The abandon of colonies in South Africa did not mean free development of colonies and there were more immigrant sites, more colonies.

Finally, new imperialism that mainly indicates latter half of the 1800s and into the first half of the 1900s will be discussed. Compared with old imperialism since 17th century which aims to make the mother countries wealthy by using colonies as supplies and production places, new imperialism means those colonies or developing countries are the places of raw materials, and those raw materials will be transported to mother countries or developed countries to process and then sell the products all over the world (3). What is more, the status of colonies and western countries is in the same level and both develops severely rely on agriculture according to old imperialism. In the new imperialism system, there is a great gap between the colonies and western countries. The western countries conquer colonies with advanced weapons and broke the limits of those countries. In general, old imperialism focuses more on economic plundering while new imperials is ambitious and wants to achieve political purposes. We can use Germany as an example, in 1890, during William II reigning, he promoted the expansion of colonies and wanted to set up more colonies for political purpose. More colonies, more power. It also indicated that Germany not only became the super power of the Europe but all over the world. France took similar policies to expand colonies overseas to improve the international status, which was encouraged by Germany who aimed to make conflict between France and England, both would compete the colonies for the sake of more interests. Apart from this, Europe also wanted to low down the revenge attitude of France since French Revolution by promoting France’s expansion overseas. Therefore, as you can see, for various political purposes, new imperialism was followed and practiced.

Reference

(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialist

(2) R. Robinson and J. Gallagher, "The imperialism of Free Trade1814-1915", Economic Review, 2nd ser, vi (1953). http://www.douban.com/note/203953831/

(3) http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%96%B0%E5%B8%9D%E5%9B%BD%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89

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