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Kangxi Empire

2020-05-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Kangxi Empire,本文讲述自秦朝以来,原称“应政”的帝国称自己为帝国,这意味着他的功绩远远超过古代中国的“三个君主”和“五个皇帝”,因此沿袭了帝国制度[Genxian Quan],试图在此讨论帝国制度。 《中国》,中国学术期刊电子出版社:48]。帝国制度明确了排他性地位,并遵循这样的观点,即上帝赋予了帝国权力,每个人都应该服从帝国。中国历史上有数百个帝国,但并不是每个人都像康熙帝国那样辉煌,他是中国领土的成功捍卫者,也是在这几个伟大帝国中中国清朝政策的重要建立者。康熙是中国清朝的第四帝国。他出生于165454日,并在父亲顺治去世后成为第二个帝国[SpenceJonathan D.2002),“康熙皇帝:修订历史”,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor#Early_reign](关于康熙父亲的争议很多,但官方声称他的父亲在康熙继位之前去世了)1661年,他只有7岁。从那以后,他开始统治中国61年,这是所有帝国中最长的统治时间。他抓住了摄政王中最强大的Oboi并亲自控制了帝国。并压制了以吴三桂为首的“三藩”的起义。而且,通宁王国被击败,台湾成为清朝的一部分。他扩大了领土,并喜欢诸如数学,艺术等西方知识。总的来说,他被认为是中国历史上最伟大的帝国。

康熙七年就位,但实际权力由摄政王索南,苏克萨哈,埃比伦和奥博伊控制,后者由太后孝庄太后任命。在谋杀Suksaha之后,Oboi成为了唯一而强大的摄政王。 1669年,康熙在经过特工的八年剥削之后,逮捕了Oboi,并在他14岁时亲自控制了国家。

 

Kangxi Empire

 

Since Qin dynasty, the original empire “Yingzheng” named himself as empire, which means his credits were far more than Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors in ancient china, the empire system was followed.The empire system pinpoints the exclusive status and follow the opinion that the god endow the power to empire and everyone should obedient to the empire. There are hundreds of empire in china’s history, but not everyone is as brilliant as Kangxi Empire, he was a successful defender of Chinese territory and also an important establisher in Chinese Qing dynastic policies among those few great empires. Kangxi was the fourth empire of in Qing dynasty of China. He was born in 4 May 1654, and became the second empire after his father Shunzhi‘s death(there are many disputes about Kangxi’ father, but the official claim is that his father died before Kangxi’ succession) When he was only 7 years old in 1661. Since then, he began to rule over china for 61 years which was the longest ruling time among all the empires. He caught Oboi who was the most powerful of the regents and took control of the empire himself. And repressed the revolt of Three Feudatories, which was dominated by WuSangui. What’s more, Kingdom of Tungning was defeated and Taiwan became one part of Qing dynasty. He expanded the territory and was fond of western knowledge such as math, artistic. In general, he was regarded as the greatest empire in China history.

Although Kangxi was enthroned at 7, the actual power was controlled by regents, Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi who was appointed by Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang. Oboi became the sole and powerful regent after murdering Suksaha. In 1669, after eight years exploiting by agents, Kangxi arrested Oboi and actually controlled the countries personally when he was just 14 years old.  

In terms of Kangxi’s achievement, military success was a big part of it. The first one is the suppression of three feudatories. In 1673, the south general Shang Kexi retired with requesting that his son to inherit his power, which stimulated a debate about the Feudatories problems, Kangxi thought that if the general of the Feudatory owned too much power, which would threaten the court and decided to remove feudatories. At the same year, Wu Sangui launched rebellions in Yunnan in the name of “against the Qing Dynasty and supporting the Ming Dynasty”. With the spread of rebellions, Kangxi dispatched lots of army to suppress the riots and when Wu died in 1678 and three years later, the army of Qing defeated the revolt.

Secondly, in 1681, the Tungning in Taiwan had a coup, which became a threat to Qing Dynasty. With the suggestion of Yao Qisheng, Kangxi appointed Shi Lang to attack Tai wan. At the battle of Penghu, Qing defeated the Tungning and since then, Taiwan became part of Qing Empire. In the following years, Kangxi strengthened the management of Tai Wan, which motivated the economy development of TaiWan. However, there are lots of disputes on the importance of Taiwan in Qing dynasty. Today many experts like to strengthen the Taiwan problems by suggesting that Taiwan has been a very significant problem since Qing Dynasty. Apparently, the opinion is not convincing. During Kangxi’s reigning, lots of territory problems existed, like Mongolia was one of the biggest threatens in Qing Dynasty. Thus lots of army and weapons was used to suppress Mongolia while there was just a little part aimed to Taiwan problems.

Thirdly, the conflicts between Russian and Qing dynasty continued since late-Ming dynasty. In 1685, in order to remove the invasion army of Russia out of Qing Dynasty, Kangxi appointed general Sa Busu to carry out the mission. Although the mission was completed, the second year, Russia invaded Qing territory again. The battle between both sides ended with the victory of Qing dynasty. Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed in 1689, which symbolized the strong capacity of Qing Dynasty, by that means, Kangxi expanded Qing territory to a new level.

Fourthly, during Kangxi’s reigning, Mongolia became part of Qing dynasty. There are several departs and all of them submitted to Qing Dynasty or had an intimate relationship with Qing Dynasty at the beginning. Kangxi took different policies to Mongolia, such as giving titles, holding marriage between each other, encouraging the development of stock farming. On the one hand, a conflict between the Khalkha and the Dzungars over the influence of Tibetan Buddhism led to Galdan Boshugtu Khan who was the Dzungar chief’s attack to Khalkha. Besides, the support of the Russian made Galdan ambitious toward the invasion. When the Khalkha was defeated and they searched for help of the Qing dynasty at the cost of submission. In 1688, Kangxi began to dispatch army to suppress Dzungars and he also took part in the battle personally in 1696, which showed that he thought highly of the Mongolia problems. After about 10 years’ conflict, in 1698, the Dzungars was defeated by Kangxi and Galdan was forced to commit suicide. Since then, although there were several conflicts, Qing Dynasty won the battles continuously and most parts of Mongolia became the territory of Qing dynasty.

Finally, the Tibet problems continued because of Dzungars who was a strong power which supposed to locate in Mongolia. The Dzungars threatened the Qing dynasty and invaded Tibet, took control of Lhasa and removed Lha-bzang from power. In 1717 and until 1720, Kangxi retook the Tibet and defeated the Dzungars.

Most of the contributions of Kangxi mentioned above are territory problems and actually, with the conquer of those borders, the territory of Qing dynasty was expanded, which demonstrates Kangxi’s skill in making war strategies and expert in battles. Next, other aspects will be included to indicate the great of Kangxi.

Economy lays foundation for the development of other activities including culture, politics and army construction. During reigning of Kangxi, we can see the rapid growth of economy from the following figures”.

      1668 (7th year of Kangxi): 14,930,000 taels

1692: 27,385,631 taels

1702–1709: approximately 50,000,000 taels with little variation during this period

1710: 45,880,000 taels

1718: 44,319,033 taels

1720: 39,317,103 taels

1721 (60th year of Kangxi, second last of his reign): 32,622,421 taels

Since 1668, the fortune of Qing dynasty continued to grow, although in the later years of Kangxi’s reign, there came to declining trend, but the fewest fortune in 1721 was more than twice compared from that in 1668. Besides, Kangxi reformed a series of land system, peasants were given more farm lands to cultivate and peasants could pay less taxes to exploit the virgin land. Those policies stimulated peasants’ enthusiasm to produce more food, to solve the basic starving problems, which contributed most to economic growth.

Besides, Kangxi was interested in western culture, which contributed to the early relationship between China and Western countries. Apart from interested in astronomy, mathematics, advanced technology and especially art, Kangxi devoted to study those western cultures and promoted its spread. Jesuits played a large role in the impartial court and some of them was endowed a title, became important officers in China. Matteo Ripa (1682-1745) who as a court painter was an example among those Jesuits. In the early time of Qing dynasty, western art began to popular during not only court but also ordinary people. Kangxi ordered to select skilled westerners in Macao, and in a letter to Roma pope, he stated that” please send those who are expert in astronomy, medical, mathematics and art to severe our country”. Ripa was one of those westerners. Both Kangxi and Ripa showed respect to each other. Because of his excellence in western Western copper engraving works and oil painting and his respect towards Kangxi, he got more appreciation than other Jesuits such as the establishment of court paint studios and accompanied Kangxi to participate in lots of court events. Another priest said when he first met Kangxi empire” the great empire is very kindly to us, he insists that we should stay in the palace and serve us with the best tea, giving us 100 gold coins which are the best manners for Chinese.”. And Jesuits actually contributed a lot to Qing dynasty, to some extent, Jesuits also respected and submitted to Kangxi, which made Kangxi tolerate the spread of Christianity in China. However, in the late year of reigning, the pope began to intervene the Politics of Qing dynasty, which made Kangxi resist Christianity for fearing of losing power. In a word, Kangxi was tolerant to foreign cultures and to some extent encouraged the spread of foreign cultures. On the one hand, Kangxi wanted those Jesuits to serve him and country by using their skills. On the other hand, in order to consolidate his reigning, he didn’t want the Christianity to have impact on his people. The subtle emotions contributed a lot to the stability of the Qing Dynasty.

In addition, Kangxi really deserved the title of the best empire. He was hardworking in dealing with affairs of the state, and he cared for the hardships of the people. Kangxi knew deeply that corruption led to perish, thus he focused on three aspects to suppress corruption. The earliest emphasized instructions and issuing of imperial decrees, the second stages reinforced the propaganda and punished severely a number of corrupted officials. In the last stage, there was more kniency in dealing with corruption reprimanding the defects of upright officials. In a word, Kangxi had his own limitations and his insistence on suppressing the corruption and advocating of uprights was praise worthy. With the instructions of Confucian ideology, Kangxi inherited the central government system with important modifications. He was good at appointing officials and made them loyal to him, he tried to use talents to support his reigning. Moreover, he was a great commander, during battles with Dzungar, he was excellent taking part in the battles personally. Controlling the rivers was another merit he had done. Flooding was a serious problem in every dynasty. Thousands of lands and houses were destroyed, thousands of people lost their lives. By learning from teachers, books, introducing western ways to resist flooding, Kangxi made great progress in flooding control, which led to the stability of Qing dynasty. Because of his dedication, the Kangxi Dictionary which was a vast encyclopedia and an even vaster compilation of Chinese literature was finished. He also learned from western cultures and was expert in mathematics, appreciating the western oil painting.

In general, as the longest rulers whose reigning came to 61 years, Kangxi deserved to the honor” one of the greatest empire in Chinese history”. Since enthroned at 7, he began to face lots of challenges. Firstly, he arrested a powerful regents- Oboi and took control of whole country at young age. Then he suppressed the biggest rebellions which cause by Wusangui, defeating Mongolia and Tibetans, driving Russians out of Qing territory, unifying Taiwan as part of China, encouraging the spread of western technology, focusing on economic growth, caring for ordinary people, working hard to keep the stability of the Qing dynasty, all those merits were brilliant. Therefore, Kangxi consolidated the Qing dynasty in his successful 61 years ruling. He not only brought to China a prosperous dynasty, but also set down a strong bases for later rulers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

(1)Genxian Quan,”A attempt to discuss the empire system in China”,China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 48.

(2) Spence, Jonathan D. (2002), "Kangxi Emperor: Revision history",

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor#Early_reign

(3) http://baike.baidu.com/view/50252.htm?fromtitle=康熙&fromid=130006&type=search

(4) Li Kong, “the 22th years of Kangxi Reign: the status of Taiwan in Qing dynasty”, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 61-62.

(5)Anli Chen, “the policies and measures of Qing dynasty to Mongolia, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 55.

(6)Qimu,”the Kangxi empire who first conquer Mongolia in person”, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 128.

(7) Dingping Shen,” Father Matteo Ripa‘s activities in court and his relationship with Kangxi. China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 83-88.

(8)JingZhu,”Kangxi and French Jesuits”, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 109.

(9)Xiaorong He,”The discussion of Kangxi’s measure toward corruption” China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 32.

(10)Mingzhi Wang, “Kangxi’s expert in governing officials”, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House: 55-57.

(11)Deren Liu, ”Discussion of Kangxi’s merits in river controlling”, China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House:57-62.

 

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