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New mercantilism

2019-03-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- New mercantilism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了新重商主义。当前,美国重商主义与金融、能源及军工等资本相结合,通过美元国际为美国获取巨额的经济利益。然而,表面奉行自由主义,实质奉行新重商主义的美国,却攻击其他国家奉行重商主义以为其贸易和货币政策开路。

New mercantilism,新重商主义,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Mercantilism unfolds in different historical tenses. Eric Farnsworth, vice President of the association of the americas, asserts in the new mercantilism: China's emerging role in the americas that Beijing's investments in Latin America and the Caribbean offer opportunities that differ from those offered by the United States and liberal economic orthodoxy. So why do some scholars think that China is engaged in mercantilism while America is engaged in neo-mercantilism? This may be due to the hidden nature of America's new mercantilist policies, especially its rise from tangible trade disputes to covert currency wars. The differences and similarities between American new mercantilism and traditional mercantilism and their influences on the world are worthy of further study by the academic circle. Starting from the historical path of mercantilism, we reveal the essence and characteristics of American new mercantilism under the cloak of liberalism. With the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, the new mercantilism of the United States encountered an unprecedented crisis, which resulted in the interweaving of trade war and currency war. We should take precautions against its new mercantilism policy.

Mercantilism was once the dream of the traditional great power, but it was criticized for focusing too much on the zero-sum game in circulation. Mercantilism, however, did not completely dead, mercantilism policy of "governance" some thought coat may change, but the difference between profits in order to keep the advantage of kernel and there is no fundamental change, and the trade competition evolved to a currency war, through the exchange rate changes on the world money market directly capture of wealth, the resulting heavily socialist characteristics of mercantilism. At present, American mercantilism combines with finance, energy and military industry and other capitals to obtain huge economic benefits for the United States through the international "currency throne" of the dollar. Yet America, ostensibly a liberal neo-mercantilist, attacks other countries for pursuing "mercantilism" to make way for its trade and monetary policies.

To analyze the essence of neo-mercantilism, it is necessary to ask its historical ancestor for a glimpse of the "gene" code that has been cryptically inherited till now. Since its origin in the 14th and 15th centuries, mercantilism has profoundly influenced world history. The core of this idea is: only gold and silver money is real wealth, wealth is money, money is wealth; The direct source of wealth is in the field of circulation; National wealth is essential to gold and silver and other precious metals, if there is no precious metal, it must be obtained through trade; Foreign trade must be in surplus, and exports must exceed imports; To run a trade surplus, the state shall actively intervene in the economy, reward exports and restrict imports. Early mercantilism in historical development pursued the theory of metal currency balance, reflecting the characteristics of early capitalists who accumulated hard currency and used high tariffs to prevent the outflow of gold and silver. But Spain's policy has caused prices to rise, squeezing out real industry. After the heavy monetary policy pushed the Netherlands into a huge business empire, the industrial entity also tended to decline, and as a result, Spain lost in competition with Britain. In the late period, mercantilism realized that currency could only be multiplied in the continuous trade movement, and trade advantage was the basis of currency advantage. Its representative, Thomas e. "The common way to increase our wealth and gold and silver is through foreign trade," meng wrote. "therefore, we must recognize the rule that the goods sold to foreigners each year are worth more than what we consume from them."

It was Adam? Smith's criticism of mercantilism, makes "mercantilism" image is clear, he cites the exposed the weaknesses of the system and to own economic freedom under strong light: mercantilist system is business class of deception to the public, "merchants and factory owners, should stir up the sophisticated people's common sense", not only pay attention to treasure attaches great importance to the industrial entity but the fate of decline. Decline is the inevitable destination of Spain and the Netherlands. Of course, mercantilism is not all "obsessed with wealth and money". Historical facts have proved that mercantilism gave birth to modern powers. The mercantilist policies pursued by Britain at the beginning promoted primitive capital accumulation and overseas expansion, and Britain became a European power within half a century. The early mercantilist policy was the material basis for Britain to form a modern nation state. As early as the opening of new shipping routes, the concept of heavy gold encouraged Spain to plunder gold and silver in America, forming a "cave of gold" -style power. In the process of resisting Spain, the Netherlands was established. Mercantilism promoted the creation of modern credit, bookkeeping, financial system and Banks. Banks attracted funds with the guarantee of the state. Louis xiv's chancellor of the exchequer kolber also practiced the late mercantilist policy, which promoted the development of French industry and commerce. In 1675, kolber made the national balance of payments, and France achieved the prosperity of industry and commerce.

But in both Spain and the Netherlands, the pursuit of a balanced currency ultimately curbed free trade to prevent gold from flowing out, crowding out real industry and leading to decline. France eventually evolved into a "mercantilist agriculture", agricultural withering. The mirror image of the rise and fall of these countries shows the core of mercantilism, which is a strategy to establish capitalist production and lifestyle -- to destroy the fortress of natural economic seclusion, to realize mutual contact between goods and money and usher in the era of "goods". Later, America rose up with the destruction of natural economy by mercantilism, and surpassed the British empire which fell into the pound crisis. For all its flaws, such as the zero-sum game in which one man's loss is another man's gain, and its focus on export production, the ubiquity of mercantilist "difference theory" has befuddled a generation and become the policy source of the rise of great powers. Keynes was a great admirer of mercantilism and was unhappy with laissez-faire's view that "mercantilist theory is a complete and utter mess". At the height of the depression, he praised mercantilism for its "contribution to statesmanship", but it was not properly inherited: "the practical wisdom that may have been acquired, forgotten by ricardo's unrealistic abstractions, and then lost." This focus on the field of circulation has been replaced. The pecking order used mathematical method to eliminate mercantilism. Locke and Smith used liberalism to deconstruct mercantilism. Marx's theory of surplus value surpasses mercantilism, and the production process of surplus value clearly proves that the proliferation of money is not the cheap buying and expensive selling in the circulation field. Historically, "mercantilist" countries first implemented monetization and marketization, which made the western Netherlands, Britain and the United States and other hegemonic powers. However, after marketization was established, only "circulation" and "surplus" were paid attention to, resulting in financial crisis, collapse of commercial credit system and recession. However, the idea of trade balance did not disappear under the impact of various theories. Instead, it developed into "new mercantilism". In the state of the union address in 2010, Obama proposed the national export strategy, aiming to double the export within five years. Its strategic point is direct government help U.S. companies and overseas distributors to facilitate and maintain its interests, strengthen the international trade law enforcement to create fair trade market for U.S. companies, including export credit, technical support, commercial and political risk insurance and other resources to support, the government, establish framework to promote exports, accounting for one-third of the total amount of the export services is the change of the new mercantilism "statecraft".

Since the 1980 s, the us trade deficit ballooning, the advocated government intervention to reduce trade deficit, economic political deficits as an excuse, and trade policy is used as weapons, on trading partners a trend of economic growth and its international status, especially by dollar hegemony to maintain the existing control of the world economy. This new mercantilism is not really advocating comprehensive reduction of the industrial trade deficit, but just a cover to maintain its advantageous industries, especially the financial industry.

As the core of Mr Obama's five-year plan shows, the new mercantilism is gaining ground economically despite successive American administrations' professed commitment to "free trade". Alan greenspan, a former vice chairman of the federal reserve. Commenting on trade policy in the 1990s, brand laments that "despite the achievements of the clinton-gore administration in the decade of free trade, the country is more mercantilist than it was a decade ago. Since Adam? No economist since Smith has been able to dispel blind faith in mercantilism. In the 1990s, the so-called new economic era of the United States, the Clinton administration spared no effort to promote "free trade doctrine", such as the Uruguay round negotiations, Seattle conference, the signing of the north American free trade agreement, the participation in the asia-pacific economic cooperation, etc., the American economy has made new breakthroughs. "The strong performance of the us in the 1990s was driven by the information technology revolution... Globalization has played an important role in the new American economy. But the essence of this globalization process is the process of the international expansion of the us dollar. It's not that the Clinton administration is actually pursuing a free trade policy; There is ample economic theory to show that, in some cases, trade protection can increase national welfare. But why not just do it? Obviously, this is difficult to operate and easy to cause widespread protectionism. Why not, in the name of promoting free trade, magically promote the new financial doctrine and seize the global surplus value and resources? Although the interests of industrial workers are ostensibly sacrificed, financial capital gains greater interests. Politically, this new mercantilism was first used to attack Japanese manufacturing. The United States, in cooperation with other countries, forced Japan to sign the "plaza accord", mainly by forcing the appreciation of the yen, creating trade frictions, forcing Japan to open its market to the United States, and requiring the Japanese government to adopt the policy of expanding expenditure to stimulate domestic consumption. The emerging new mercantilism may be aimed at China, mainly by letting the RMB appreciate and creating trade frictions, abusing anti-dumping and countervailing measures to implement trade protectionism.

This new American mercantilism has several significant new features: first, national interests are still the main goal of the government. However, with the establishment and expansion of the hegemonic status of the us dollar in the international community, more national interests can be grabbed by expanding the scope of use of the debt-type us dollar and improving financial hegemony. Second, pay attention to the development of high and new technology and high-end industries, and absolute monopoly and control, for the low-end industry has no intention to seek advantages; This feature changed the layout of American industrial structure, changed its domestic political power and strengthened the power of financial capital. Third, trade protection is gradually becoming more and more insidious and universal. Trade protection under the "liberal" foreign policy is even more secretive. Neoliberalism is nothing but the FIG leaf of American neo-mercantilism. It becomes the bible of other countries, leaving the bible behind but taking away more surplus value, resources and wealth. Fourth, the export of paper money and finance to obtain a large number of raw materials and low-end manufactured goods, forming a characteristic trade "deficit" and making the United States a "debtor and never tires of it".

The devaluation of paper currencies can rob creditors and make the us an international currency centre, so the us is "willing to live with" the trade deficit. The United States not only runs a huge trade deficit with China, but also with Japan and Europe. In essence, the United States pursues financial interests, abandonssome low-end industrial interests, conducts currency wars against other countries under the guise of trade frictions, and gains more economic benefits. However, the United States currently imposes many restrictions on the export of high-tech products to globally competitive high-tech industries and services. As the idea of "financial nation-building" becomes increasingly obvious, these restrictions are integrated with financial capital. Financial power manipulates technological power and integrates the production process. Financial enterprises are so dominant that they are "too big to fail". After the financial crisis, the United States was forced to carry out the golden parachute rescue plan because the financial capital held the whole world and the American economy hostage. New mercantilism policy, takes the opposition into a "one-to-many", America, Europe and the United States and the sino-us trade friction constantly, the behavior and the slogan of new liberalism in the United States is essentially a deviation, the voice of the accused the United States a double standard in the world, the it is the inevitable consequence of the new mercantilism overextended.

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