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German enterprise management accounting function

2019-01-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- German enterprise management accounting function,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了德国企业的管理会计职能。德国企业非常重视预算管理的作用,他们通过展望未来的情况,实施未来的预算模式,让企业管理层提前做好日常经营、资本投资和财务融资等关键活动的准备。在很多德国企业里,管理会计的职能不仅是财务职能,也不仅是分析控制职能,更是其他部门的合作伙伴。

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It has been a century since the publication of Taylor's principles of scientific management in 1911. Both the control and performance accounting popular in American enterprises in the middle of the 20th century and the traditional and innovative school in the great development period of management accounting, it seems that the development center of management accounting has never left the United States. However, a close study of the miracle of German economic development after World War II shows that the development of management accounting has made great progress in the actual operation of their enterprises. German companies are even better at managing controls than American ones. Although China is now the world's second largest economy, there are various levels and stages of development among enterprises. We have more than 100 fortune 500 companies and high-tech companies like alibaba, but we also have a large number of companies that are still electrified. Learning the successful experience of German enterprise management accounting is of practical significance to many Chinese enterprises that are still in the stage of industry 2.0 or 3.0, and will help them accelerate the realization of China's own industry 4.0 plan, namely "made in China 2025".

The same is true of business management activities. German enterprises attach great importance to the role of budget management. They usually implement the "1+2" budget model: 1 represents the current year's budget and rolling forecast update, and 2 represents the forecast for the next two years. By looking ahead to the next three years, the management will be prepared for key activities such as daily operations, capital investment and financial financing.

From October every year, all departments of the company will prepare the corresponding cost budget from the bottom up according to the sales budget of the next three years provided by the sales department, and then the budget team will summarize the data, and finally form the draft of the three major financial statements of the budget. The board of directors shall deliberate on the draft and propose Suggestions for revision in accordance with the objectives expected to be achieved by shareholders; The revised budgets will then be approved by a majority of the board before Christmas. After the board of directors finally approved the budget, the budget team decomposed the budget into each KPI indicator according to the four dimensions of the balanced scorecard, which was used as the basis for assessing the performance of various departments and employees.

The budget made at the beginning of the year needs to be updated in the second quarter due to the changes of business environment and government regulations in the actual implementation process, so the quarterly rolling budget emerges as The Times require. By comparing the actual results, the management accounting personnel will analyze the reasons for the difference between the budget and the actual results, take corrective measures for the possible major deviation, and make up for the lost before the loss occurs.

With that year's budget, companies need to look two years ahead to anticipate future market conditions, operating costs and capital. In general, the forecast of these two years does not need to be estimated month by month, but only need the annual number. The sales department proposes the future sales price and the new product to be developed according to the market expectation, and the operation department determines the operating costs based on the target cost of the product and the shareholders' expectation of EBITDA. It also needs to plan capital investment for future development, including maintaining existing capacity and meeting new business development.

P to create value, the enterprise must use capital investment. Enterprises need to make their strategic goals and development direction explicit and quantitative, and they also need to make certain capital investment. If investment activities bring net cash flow to the future development of the enterprise, these cash flows will ultimately reflect the value of the enterprise. In practice, German enterprises will focus on the following two aspects of capital investment plan.

The fixed assets of an enterprise are in operation every day and consume in the normal operation process. The depreciation of assets is reflected in the financial accounting. When making the annual budget, German enterprises assume that maintaining the existing production capacity, the amount of capital budget that needs to be invested every year in the future will not be less than the depreciation generated. This kind of capital budget is divided into two purposes, one is the performance and efficiency can not meet the requirements of the replacement of machinery and equipment; second, can continue to use equipment, asset improvement. German enterprises will stop production once or twice a year and invest capital in major maintenance and transformation of key equipment to ensure normal production operation and stable product quality.

In addition to maintaining existing capacity, German companies have plans for new product development and new market development, which also require capital investment. In an enterprise I worked in, when preparing the budget every year, the group required the investment of more than 500,000 euros for a single project to provide a detailed investment feasibility analysis, and the analysis results were strictly followed by the return on investment and cash flow analysis. The project can only be included in the capital budget if both the investment recovery period and the net present value meet the standards set by the group.

The new product investment project cycle in table 1 is 7 years, and the expected rate of return given by the group is 12%, which is used to calculate the discounted cash flow and investment payback period. Although the implied rate of return was 14.7% and the net present value of 411,000 euros over the whole project period was greater than 0, the payback period of 6.3 years exceeded the 5 years stipulated by the group, and the project was ultimately rejected and not included in the capital budget.

Shareholders must expect returns when they invest in companies. Enterprises should strive for more profits whether they provide services or physical products. At the same time, they must manage their assets well, speed up their turnover, and turn the profits into usable cash flow as much as possible, instead of idle inventory or idle equipment, because cash is the "blood" of enterprises. In the financial supervision and control process of German enterprises, profitability and cash flow should be firmly grasped. Management accounting should start from the discovery of differences, find out the reasons and put forward Suggestions for improvement.

Management accounting compares the results of an enterprise's actual operations with budget standards and calculates the difference in absolute or percentage values. At the same time, using the idea of kanban management for reference, the difference is marked with "traffic light" on the chart: green light means to achieve the expected goal; The yellow light indicates that the actual result does not reach the target, but the difference is within a certain range. The red light indicates not only that the goal has not been achieved, but that the discrepancy is beyond the set point, reaching a severity level that requires immediate action to improve.

If management accounting reports from the ERP system find that a certain cost is actually overspent than the standard this month. In addition to using charts to present the Numbers to management, he also needs to analyze the reasons behind the differences, because it makes more sense to dig for them. The reason for the difference is that the system transaction is restored by using digital and ERP records, and management accounting needs to communicate with the personnel involved in the transaction. Take labor cost overruns as an example: do we need to know whether wage rate differentials are caused by wage increases for workers who are hired every month, or whether efficiency differentials are caused by insufficient capacity or poor management? If the wage rate difference, the analyst also needs to ask the personnel department; Is there a shortage of workers in the recruitment market, or is the government introducing new regulations that require workers to pay more? This kind of analysis is similar to stripping bamboo shoots. The management accountant must go out with questions from the office to the site to understand the situation to the parties, and expand layer by layer until the root cause of the difference is found. In addition, in addition to the actual operation process, the difference caused by poor management may also be due to the unreasonable budget target setting.

The above profit analysis shows that the actual results of this month should be compared not only with the same period of last year, but also with the budget at the beginning of the year and the quarterly rolling forecast, so as to find all kinds of business risks and areas for improvement from the differences. In table 2, there is a gap of 500,000 between the actual non-operating expenses and the forecast. The management accountant should remind the management that the original planned relocation project of production line was delayed, resulting in time difference instead of cost saving.

Above is the analysis of the differences between the cash flow, management accounting need to focus on different projects, such as inventory and accounts payable are more than two million cash outflows, the reason is that the above mentioned production line to move, some important customers in order to ensure its own supply chain security, we accumulated stock in advance, so that production can move during the timely supply to them. However, due to the high temperature in summer, the inventory accumulation in August was not as much as expected, and the corresponding accounts payable of raw materials to suppliers were also less than expected, so the inventory and accounts payable were reflected as cash outflows.

Only in this way, can management accounting find the improvement from the enterprise cost control and cash flow management, and prepare for making Suggestions.

In many German enterprises, the function of management accounting is not only a financial function, not only an analytical control function, but also a partner of other departments. Through their comparative analysis of the data differences, in view of the reasons found, to the corresponding responsible departments to provide Suggestions for improvement. In the case of insufficient inventory accumulation found in the cash flow statement above, the management accountant can discuss with the planning and production departments how to increase the output in the next month. For example, whether it can be solved by increasing overtime work of workers; They can analyze and compare the extra overtime pay with the high air freight or customer fines for late delivery in the future, which is better for the company, so that the executive department can arrange the future production and material plan in advance.

To sum up, there are many management accounting tools that can be applied in enterprise management, such as comprehensive budget management, standard cost method, activity-based costing, lean production, balanced scorecard, etc., but every enterprise cannot exhaust all the methods. According to the characteristics of large capital investment, complex production process and high technical requirements of products, German enterprises dig into market segments, concentrate on budget and forecast management and resources. Focusing on the two centers of profit and cash flow, the company shall decompose assessment objectives, assess and motivate employees to strive for the company's development strategy. In the process of operation, management accounting regularly analyzes the differences in operation results to ensure that the development of the enterprise is not far from the strategic direction, and puts forward Suggestions and Suggestions for improvement based on the problems found. In the end, the company has achieved remarkable results through continuous improvement. Their successful experience is worth learning from.

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