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The development of sustainable energy cluster by stronger international collaboration

2018-12-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The development of sustainable energy cluster by stronger international collaboration,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际合作开发可持续能源。投资合作是实现可持续能源领域发展国际合作的途径之一。投资合作是加强国与国之间关系的一种制度,也是提高抗风险能力的一种制度。国际投资合作对于发展能源产业特别是可再生能源具有重要作用,因为不同国家的资本注入可以帮助增加对某一领域的关注,并互补优势。此外,投资合作还可以带来收益,减少市场波动风险,并与合作伙伴分担风险。

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Abstract

1. Introduction

Energy is the source of social progress and economic development. But the environmental problem and depletion of energy resources call for the sustainable energy. The sustainable development in the energy field is a system of taking full advantage of exploration and usage and also creating conditions of sustainable usage for descendants (Kazmerski, 2014). Although the project to develop sustainable can provide reliable energy sources and eliminate the environmental problems, the energy project with the feature of long operation time, huge capital demand and high technological threshold is difficult to achieve. Thus, the sustainable energy project is expected to be carried out by international collaboration. International collaboration is a basic form of international society and it will be adopted when the interest parties have the consistent benefits (Fearon, 1998). Based on it, this paper will discuss the importance of international collaboration in the development of sustainable energy field. After that, it will take Sino-American cooperation in this field for an example and put forward recommendations to improve the conditions. To make it more specific, Carbon Capture,Utilization and Storage (CCUS) will be regarded as the example of sustainable energy in the cooperation between China and America. CCUS is one of key technologies to deal with the challenges of global warming, which has been paid great attention by countries around the world. CCUS is developed based on CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) and has been a new trend of utilizing CO2. It purifies the CO2 discharged in process of production and put it into the new production. It can be adopted into the field of displacement of reservoir oil with CO2 and plastic degradation with CO2 (Zhong, 2011). But there are great challenges in terms of industrialization.

2. Literature review

Energy problem is an important challenge for the countries around the world. With the social progress and increase of civil awareness. The environmental problem led by the energy consumption happens. One of it is the climate warming. As one of the environment problem it is a global challenge for human beings and the essential problem for this matter is to deal with the carbon emission. In other word, people nowadays is looking for the sustainable energy to develop themselves. But, the development of sustainable energy is not a plain sailing. Take CCUS as an example. CCUS is a new technology trend in this field. But when implementing this policy, most countries will encounter challenges of industrialization. Firstly, the high cost pressure slows down CCUS development. One of this adoption of CCUS is to degrade the plastic with CO2 and there are mainly four technique to achieve this idea. But only three way of these can be industrialized. Besides, this project is small-scale with features of products charging low price, small production and high operation cost, which leads to the price of degraded plastic in this can reach to approximately 2769 dollars per ton. Its competitiveness is weakened in the condition of the price of oil going down (Lui and Leamon, 2014). Secondly, high risk of capital invention of CCUS project. In terms of unit investment quotas, the project of degrading plastics by CO2 is more expensive than that by running oil. A project producing 10 thousand tons of degraded plastics needs investment of more than 20 million dollars, which reflect high risks in terms of economic benefit (Romanenko and Eduard, 2014). Last, the high price of degraded plastics and poor features of heat stability and barrier property makes it small range of application of food packaging and medical treatment. It cannot enter into the large-demand market of thin film and mulch (Li, Wei and Chen, 2016). Based on the global problem and challenges for the industrialization of CCUS, it calls for the international collaboration among the great powers. International collaboration can group the power from different countries to deal with the common challenges and generate benefits during the cooperation for each other. In this field, it can refer to the investment cooperation, global value chain, market access and intellectual property. Thus, the following discussion will focus on these four parts.

2.1 investment cooperation

Investment cooperation is one of the way to achieve the international collaboration in the development of sustainable energy field. The investment cooperation is a system to strengthen the relationship among different countries and it can also help to increase the ability of ant-risk. Sullivan (2008) has points out that the international investment cooperation plays an important role of developing the energy industry especially the renewable energy because the capital injection from different countries can help to increase the attention to the certain filed and complement each other’s advantages. The project of India-U.S. in the solar energy development can combine the material advantages (the solar energy is abundant in India) and capital as well as technological advantages (America has mastered the core technology in this field) to achieve the establishment of solar energy industry. Besides, the investment cooperation can also bring benefit to reduce the market fluctuation risk and can share the risk with partners (Guo, 2010). Sustainable energy project is usually equipped with the features of long lead time, huge capital requirement and high threshold. Thus, the investment cooperation can help to diverse the potential risks by arranging the proportion of shareholding (Melese, Lumbreras and Ramos, 2016). Zhou and Li (2008) also put forward that the investment cooperation of establishing the joint venture can also help to improve the performance of the enterprise in terms of innovation. More benefits from investment cooperation can be brought for the multi-national business are that by establishing the joint venture with the local entrepreneurs, it can help to step over the trade barrier (Voropai, 2011). Although the investment collaboration can help to increase the success rate of developing sustainable energy, the feature of this project calls for help from government cooperation. Ignoring the environmental factors, the most sustainable energy is disadvantaged in terms of energy efficiency. In other words, the sustainable is not competitive to the traditional energy if the environmental factors are ignored (Zhu, 2014). Thus, the government investment can help to overcome this matter because government can bear a long-term project and subsidy it when the project is the growth stage (Yu, Guo and Le-Nguyen, 2016). As for the energy-importing countries like China and U.S., the sustainable energy collaboration is also meaningful to help to decrease the dependency of energy importation so that it can eliminate the energy security and the environmental problems (Lucas, 2014). Last, the investment collaboration in the sustainable energy filed is also benefit for countries to carry out the environmental commitment (Unger and Tomas, 2003).

Since the feature of sustainable energy developing is huge capital demand, long lead time and high technological requirements, the way of investment collaboration is benefit to develop this industry because it can help to spread risk, share technology, step over trade barrier and strengthen the relationship among the cooperative partner.

2.2 global value chain

Global value chain (GVC) is a system to achieve the value of product or service covers from material purchasing, transportation, semi-finished product, distribution and consumption as well as recovery processing. It includes all the participants and activities of production and sales as well as it value and distribution of profits (Antràand Chor, 2013). In other words, GVC is a part of international collaboration and it cannot be achieved without the cooperation from different countries. Gong and Liu (2012) considers that energy industry’s development should rely on the international collaboration and it is suggested to strengthen the cooperation so that the energy-exported countries can increase its efficiency in terms of energy production. Besides, the energy-imported countries are usually equipped with the advantages of capital and advanced technology. Thus the cooperation can help to decrease its purchasing cost because by occupying a certain share of energy production, it can get benefits from importing energy (Rabellotti, 2013). To be specific, Zhang and Gallagher (2016) and Feng and Liu (2010) have pointed out that there is motivation for the developing countries to join the GVC in terms of developing sustainable energy field. Take China for an example, it has implanted a policy called The Belt and Road Initiative (Kaho, 2016), which is a policy calls for international collaboration based on the idea of dual and multilateral mechanism (Qian, 2016). Energy cooperation is one of its main content because China has high interdependency of oil energy and over capacity and over foreign exchange has happened (Zhang, 2016). What is more, China government also worries about the military strike happens, which will bring great damage to the economic development because its industries and infrastructure mainly groups in the coastal region. Thus, by the adopting the policy of The Belt and Road Initiative, Chinese government is eager to strengthen the relation with the coastal state so that it can reduce the war threat (Xia, 2016). However, some scholars have expressed their worry of GVC in the development of sustainable energy field. One of it is the energy security (Lee, 2010). Since the energy cooperation can be achieved only by setting up a certain company to operate the production and the site selection can be over controlled for one of the participants. Thus, the political struggle or even the war breaking out can make the investment country down the rain (Diao, 2017 and Svyatets, 2013). American government spends lots of money to maintain its navy and one of the reason behind it is to protect its energy supply (Noël, 2004).

It is obviously that the international collaboration in the sustainable energy filed will bring benefits for the participants. The developing countries can get the support of capital and technology from the developed countries and the developed countries can reduce its energy burden. But the political factors make the cooperation difficult to achieve and the energy security is one of the consideration. However, the scholars are expected to dig into the motivation for the developed countries to join the GVC of energy cooperation field.

2.3 market access

Global market has been established and nowadays seldom countries can develop itself without entering into global market. As for the energy industry, the market size is increasing and the energy supply is shortage relatively in terms of the global view (Armaroli and Balzani, 2007). However, the existing market barriers set challenges for the energy-exported countries. It is believed that by international collaboration, it can help to overcome the barriers (Zhou, 2008). The barriers for the energy company developing or supply can be various. One of it is the technical barrier, which asks the energy-exported countries should reach a certain technical condition so that it can protect the domestic consumers’ benefits (Bell, Carrington, Lawson and Stephenson, 2014). In the energy term, the energy-imported countries tend to set high standards for the cleanliness of energy supply, which also brings about the environmental barriers (Copping, Anderson and Cleve, 2010). It will limit the energy supply from the developing countries because most of them are lack of advanced technology to reach the product standards (Outka, 2012). In some extent, the technological barriers and environmental barriers are the same. Karakullukçu (2016) has pointed out that the core for the EU energy policy is to increase the energy utilization rate, which asks for the balance of huge energy supply and the environmental protection. Its starting points are to protect the consumers’ benefit and promote the sustainable environmental development. But its technical indicators are higher than the international standards, which increases the cost of energy-exported countries (Carvalho, 2012). Although the developing of sustainable energy industry can pass the text of technological and environmental barriers, it also faces the law barriers (Kelly, 2005). The most common law barriers for the renewable energy field are anti-dumping and anti-subsidy. In 2012, EU has started the research of anti-dumping against Chinese photovoltaic industry and as the result, Chinese companies should pay 47.6% anti-dumping duty to stay in EU market (Wang and Feng, 2016). The other one is the anti-subsidy. The sustainable energy industry at present still cannot compete with the traditional energy industry in terms of energy utilization rate and production cost. Thus, these industries start usually relaying on government studies (Zhang, Li and Zhou, 2014). But, it can lead to anti-subsidy. In 2010, America has put forward the anti-subidy for Chinese wind-energy industry as well as solar energy industry and as a result, Chinese companies should be imposed anti-subsidy duty (Dove, 2014).

As we can see, not also the traditional energy industry but also the new energy industry can encounter the market barriers. Thus, it is believed that some barriers set up may be diverged from its principle but to protect its domestic energy industry. Although most scholars have paid attention to this situation, seldom effective solutions are put forward. It seems that when come down to the market barriers, the support and intervene from government is inevitable.

2.4 intellectual property

Intellectual property is an exclusive rights for people’s intellectual work, which is protected by nation’s law and it can last for a certain time. Essentially, intellectual property is an intangible property and the object for the intellectual work is intellectual products (Maskus, 2000). Intellectual property involves all the spiritual work from literature to business. In this part, it will focus on the industrial property right, which contains the intellectual work of production commodity circulation (Lockwood and Rutherford, 1996). When carrying out the international collaboration, one of the focus of intellectual property is how to avoid or deal with right infringement (Lin, 2016). The reason for right infringement of international collaboration in the energy developing field can be divided into two aspects: economic reasons and institutional reason (Liu and Wang, 2016). As the goal of pursing more profits, business may violate the intellectual property with sharp practice when the law cost is lower than the profits gained (Zhang, Yang and Chen, 2015). Additionally, unsound management organization for internal intellectual property of a certain co-operating agency can also bring about the right infringement (Qian, 2010). Take Chinese company for example, among the co-operating agency in China, there is less than 10% of them seeting the management organization for intellectual property and more than 80% of the intellectual property management is carried by the technical section, whose specialized persons are lack of experience and knowledge of intellectual property because their principal as contrasted with deputy is to develop the technology (Awokuse and Hong, 2010). Except the motivation of right infringement, scholars also pay attention to the form of infringement. Firstly, patent infringement is a common situation happening in the large-scale international cooperation. In the sustainable energy filed, the production technology plays an important role in the business operation and the patent infringement can ruin a promising company (Mu, Wang and Feng, 2009). Besides, business secret is another important part. It is more difficult to protect since its feature is undocumented information, which should be kept secret by contract among the participants (Saulino, 2002). Different from the patent, the protection of business secret relays on the confidential talents. However, it depends on the commercial ethics in some way (Fosfuri and Rønde, 2004). Although there are lots challenges for the intellectual property protection, the collaboration of Sino-America, U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) has achieved successfully in the sustainable energy developing by observing a series of international convention and setting up the technological management plan (Lewis, 2014). Additionally, EU has decided to develop the CCS with the collaboration among internal countries and made it commercialize by 2020 (Scott, 2013).

Scholars have points out the importance of intellectual property protection and raise successful example in the sustainable energy developing filed. But the feature of intangible property makes it difficult to protect its confidential and the conflict of interest as well as difference of legal system can bring out dispute in this field. Although combing the observation of international convention, respective legal system and management organization for intellectual property can eliminate the right infringement in some way, it cannot put an end to it, which will decrease the trust among the participants in the international collaboration.

3. Conclusion

In generally, the literature mentioned above supports the idea of international collaboration which plays an important role in the development of sustainable energy cluster. Since the features of energy exploitation project are large-scale, long operation period and influent on country’s economy and people’s living, it asks for help from the cooperation of inter-government and multinational corporates. The international collaboration can bring benefits for spearing risks by setting up a joint venture enterprises. In this way, the participants can share the potential risks and the advanced technology as well as financial support. This initiatives can be achieved because the cooperation between different countries can stimulate their comparative advantages. Besides, the environmental problems also call for the cooperation among various countries in different GVC. It can help to make their respective advantages advantage complementary to each other. Additionally, the international collaboration in developing the sustainable energy is beneficial to decrease the resistance of market barriers and motivate the technique sharing. However, the various market barriers especially the law and environmental barriers still exist and technical security is also another important problem when carrying the international collaboration. Misconduct can lead the energy project failed. Scholars have put forward ideas to deal with these matter of law and environmental barriers by signing up cooperation framework and acknowledging the international conventions. What is more, to overcome the intellectual property security, they suggests to set up a specific organization to manage the technical patent and business secrets. These guiding ideology is extremely important for carrying out the international collaboration in the energy developing field. But more specific regulations are expected to discuss further.

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