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American deferred retirement incentives

2018-10-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- American deferred retirement incentives,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国延迟退休激励机制。美国社会保障法案的颁布标志着现代社会保障制度的建立。在人口老龄化的背景下,美国对法定退休年龄和养老金领取年龄进行改革,逐步废除法定退休年龄,提高正常退休年龄,同时对养老保险制度中的退休收入核查制度进行调整,建立延迟退休补助制度,以此增强延迟退休对老年劳动力延迟退休的激励。

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The enactment of the American social security act marked the establishment of the modern social security system. Under the background of the aging of the population, the United States to reform the legal retirement age and pension age, gradually abolish the legal and emeritus age, improve the normal retirement age, at the same time to adjust the retirement income verification system of endowment insurance system, build system of delay retirement benefits, thus enhance the delay retirement labor delay retirement incentives of the age. The reform of abolishing the legal retirement age and delaying the normal retirement age in the United States has provided a useful reference for China's reform of the deferred retirement age.

With the increase of population life expectancy and the increase of population aging, the reform of delayed retirement age has attracted extensive attention from the government and scholars in China. Scholars have conducted a series of studies on factors influencing retirement age, the effect of postponing retirement age on hidden debt of endowment insurance system and financial sustainability, and the strategy of postponing retirement age. The third plenary session of the 18th CPC central committee deliberated and adopted the decision of the CPC central committee on several major issues concerning comprehensively deepening reform, and proposed to study and formulate the policy of gradual increase of retirement age. This indicates that the reform of retirement age in China has once again attracted great attention from the government, and that the gradual postponement of retirement age has been formally put on the agenda.

With the aggravation of the aging population, the us pay-as-you-go pension system is unable to cope with the impact of the aging population. The reform of the retirement age in the United States has the following distinctive features: separating the retirement age from the pension age and gradually abolishing the statutory retirement age; Gradually raise the normal retirement age and provide economic incentives for those who delay retirement. At present, the retirement system in China does not distinguish the retirement age from the pension age. The combination of the two makes the problems related to the increasing aging of the population, the difficulty of young people in employment and the retirement age more complicated.

Different from the existing research on retirement age, this paper analyzes the characteristics and incentive mechanism of the retirement age reform in the United States from the perspective of the retirement age reform mechanism and the practice of the retirement age reform in the United States, and then proposes the enlightenment of improving the reform effect of China's retirement system. As the legal retirement system and the pension age system are two important contents in the United States retirement system, this paper first reviews the reform process of the legal retirement age in the United States, and analyzes the impact of abolishing the legal retirement age on the employment of the elderly labor force. Furthermore, this paper makes a distinction between the statutory retirement age and the pension age in the United States, and analyzes the incentive mechanism of the deferred pension age in the United States.

The statutory retirement system and the pension age regulation are two important contents in the reform of American retirement system. This part first analyzes the reform process and its influence of American statutory retirement system.

The us legal retirement system is accompanied by the development of industrialization. From the perspective of employer demand, the mechanism was established in the early 20th century to make the aged labor force withdraw from the labor market and the young labor force realize employment. The statutory retirement system is a product of the continuous improvement of the American labor market. Edward P.Lazear believed that the legal retirement system was established between the employer and the employee, and the contract within the life cycle that could bring the pareto effect. The retirement system is an indispensable part of the implicit employment contract. The regulation of legal retirement system, make the salary of young labor force is lower than its marginal labor force output, the salary of old labor force is higher than its marginal labor force output, at the same time when old labor force achieves legal retirement age, exit labor market. The statutory retirement system enables employers and employees to agree on the way to pay wages, while protecting the interests of both employers and employees. Retirement system is a system established to regulate the labor market, which is determined by economic factors and influenced by other factors.

America's statutory retirement system predates social security. Therefore, the legal retirement system before the establishment of the social security system is not directly related to pension benefits. At this point, retirement refers to the behavior of the elderly labor force to completely withdraw from the labor market. Statutory retirement age refers to the age limit for employees to leave the labor market. When an employee reaches the legal retirement age, the employer can fire the employee for age reasons.

The legal retirement system began to emerge and develop in the United States in the early 20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, about 50% and 40% of the male work force faced the legal retirement age. With the development of labor market and the perfection of labor legislation, the United States legal retirement system is constantly revised. In 1967, the United States enacted the employment act's anti-age discrimination rule, which made it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers between 40 and 65. The ADEA was revised in 1978 to raise the legal retirement age to 70. In 1986, the U.S. congress further amended ADEA to remove the age requirement for forced labor force to leave the labor market except for some special industries, namely abolishing the statutory retirement system. The amendments to the statutory retirement ages in 1978 and 1986 reflected the further regulation of the us labor market, and reflected the anti-age discrimination in the employment market and the protection of workers' rights and interests.

The 1986 revision of the jobs act marked the end of the legal retirement age in most American industries. The abolition of the statutory retirement age suggests that employers cannot force workers out of the Labour market solely on the basis of age. The reform aims to guarantee equal employment rights for the elderly labor force and improve the market participation rate of the elderly labor force. But researchers have found that America's participation rate in the elderly labor market is declining year by year. As shown in table 1, the employment rate of men aged 55 and 60 declined slightly between 1940 and 1990; The employment rate of 65-year-old males decreased from 78.2% to 31.9%; The 70-year-old male labor force participation rate fell from 43.4% to 17.1%.

From the 1970s to the 1990s, scholars did not agree on the impact of the reform of raising the legal retirement age to 70 in 1978 and abolishing the legal retirement age in 1986 on the supply of elderly labor force and retirement behavior. Studies such as Reno, Schulz and Halpern have shown that without statutory retirement rules, the market participation rate of the elderly workforce would increase by 10 to 15 percent. Burkhauser and others tried to break down the influence of statutory retirement age and pension and enterprise annuity on individual retirement decisions. According to his research, the statutory retirement age is only one of the many factors taken into account when individual workers make retirement decisions. The statutory retirement age has certain influence on retirement decisions, but economic factors such as pension and enterprise annuity have greater influence on individual retirement decisions.

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