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Social management in the age of risk society

2018-10-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Social management in the age of risk society,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了风险社会时代的社会管理。风险社会理论是西方学者关于晚期现代性社会问题的一种思考,其不仅为我们提供一种解读风险社会的理论视角,而且也促使我们对转型社会的问题加以反思。不仅对处于风险旋涡中的世界进行了客观分析,而且对于风险的复杂性、无国界性给国家和个体造成威胁的化解提供了一种解决路径,对国家社会转型时期潜在及迸发的风险危机具有极大启示性。

risk society,Social management,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

German sociologist ulrich baker proposed a "risk society" theory, not only has carried on the objective analysis to vortex in the world at risk, but also for the complexity of the risk, without borders, a threat to the state and the individual's resolve provides a way to solve, for potential during the period of social transformation in our country and the explosion risk crisis has great revelatory. The Chinese society in the transition period is faced with many risks, which are mainly manifested in the economic risks caused by insufficient demand, social risks caused by "hatred and wealth" and "shaking of values", psychological risks caused by "psychological fragility" and "psychological indifference", and global risks caused by the wave of globalization. This paper aims at reflecting on the "modernity" of "risk society", and elaborating the ability to improve risk prevention and management from the aspects of "modernity" thinking mode, decision-making system, social security system and promoting global cooperation mechanism.

In March 2011, the explosion of the fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan was caused by the earthquake, and the nuclear leakage and pollution became the focus of public opinion, which brought the nuclear crisis back into people's view. Besides nuclear energy pollution, other crises happen frequently in today's society. From tainted milk powder with melamine, salted duck eggs with cancer-causing Sudan red, to meat products made by well-known companies with "clenbuterol", and steamed bread dyed with chemical agents; From the globalization of information to the "peekaboo" event, information crisis caused by the rapid spread of information in the Internet age; From the loss of nearly 10 million hectares of forest in the world every year, to the reduction of rare species in the world.. Economic crisis, environmental crisis, social crisis, cultural crisis and other ubiquitous forms emerge in endlessly. It can be said that "we are living on the volcano of civilization", in this risky society, how can we find a way to effectively respond to threats and achieve sustainable development? How does the government face up to the challenges of reality? German famous sociologist ulrich ? baker proposed "risk society" theory has been more and more attention, and provides a new way of thinking for our country's social governance.

We are living in such a risky society, our living environment is growing in the necessary stage of "modernization". Modernization, according to magnolia's definition, is the inclusive global process of military, economic, political, ideological, cultural and social changes that developing societies undergo in order to achieve the level of industrial civilization. Driving forces, hedonism, loss of values, democratization Has become the adjective of modern society. From the definition and these terms, we can perceive that modernization itself contains dynamic, open, diversified and unstable elements. These endoplasms reflect the cold face of modernity. For example, in the military field, Hiroshima and Nagasaki have not yet recovered from the shadow of the atomic bomb. Viral variants are "clawing their teeth" in the misuse of antibiotics, and biotechnology is creating unknown dangers. It can be seen that while modernization provides growth background and soil for the rise and development of various fields, various kinds of undetectable risk "bacteria" also breed in the soil. Once these "bacteria" have the right growth conditions, they may grow exponentially and even cause sudden social crisis and shock. The "risk society" we want to understand now is exactly in the background of the dangerous "modernization". As a modern concept developing together with a continuously progressive, purposeful and irreversible civilization, it is rapidly stepping into our vision.

In "risk society", baker first defines "risk" as environmental pollution and its negative impact on human society. "When I say risk, I mean, first of all, the complete escape from the radioactivity of human perception, the toxins and contaminants in air, water and food, and the accompanying short-term and long-term effects on plants, animals and people." For example, the great smog event in London, England in 1952, caused the dust concentration to be 10 times the normal level due to the large amount of coal consumption, the sulfur dioxide concentration to be six times the normal level and finally formed the acid fog, resulting in a large number of people suffering from respiratory diseases, and the death rate doubled than usual. In the Bhopal incident in India, in 1984, the united carbide pesticide plant in bopal city, India, due to improper operation, caused the highly toxic methyl isocyanate in the underground storage tank to explode out of pressure, causing a large number of human and animal deaths, up to 40 square kilometers. Arguably, baker initially placed "risk" narrowly on a single level of the environment.

However, the practical problems are clearly not limited to the environmental crisis in the original meaning of "risk". In addition, we are also faced with crises in such areas as loss of values, declining credibility, increasing polarization between the rich and the poor, and so on. A deeper consideration behind this is how different is the "risk" now being discussed than the various threats to humanity before industrial societies? In this regard, baker points out that the risk arising from late modernity, based on industrial overproduction, is not the same as the previous natural threat caused by external factors. "Risk" is a reflection of human activity and neglect, a manifestation of highly developed productivity. This means that the source of danger is no longer ignorance but knowledge; It's no longer a lack of control over nature it's too much control; It is not something out of the grasp of man, but the norms and systems established in the industrial age. That is to say, the "risk" proposed by baker is artificial. The reason is not insufficient development but excessive development. It is not the reason why we are eager to push forward modernization, but the result of modernization itself. Thus, the risks always existed in the development of human society have been upgraded.

Therefore, the understanding of the concept of "risk" involves reflective modernity theory, "risk can be defined as the way to systematically deal with the danger and insecurity caused by modernization itself. Risks, in contrast to earlier dangers, are some of the consequences associated with the threat of modernization and the globalization of doubt that modernization brings. They are politically reflexive." "The concept of risk is a very modern concept, and the concept of risk indicates that people have created a civilization." in other words, the concept of risk civilization has been promoted to the same height and parallel "identity" as the industrial civilization. Therefore, after the industrial civilization has reached a certain level, risk is no longer a problem that can be concretized, nor is it only a feature of society, but the nature of society. The world is in the midst of a "risk society," or rather, our global society could be renamed "risk society."

In his book the risky society, published in 1992, baker initially defined a "risk society" as a set of special social, economic, political and cultural factors. These factors, characterized by the universal principle of artificial uncertainty, bear the burden of transforming existing social structures, institutions and social relations into more complex, more casual and more divisive social organizations. Diagnosis "as a social theory and culture, the concept of risk society refers to a phase of modernity, at this stage, produced on the road of industrialization society began to dominate the threat of" because of some local or emergencies may cause or trigger social disaster led to the dark side of society, more and more dominant social and political. Therefore, huntington, Samuel famously said, "produce stable, modernity and modernization has not stable", which is on the generalization of risk society in the process of modernization. Thus it can be seen that the risk society is the result of modern deconstruction of industrial society and a kind of social transformation. At this stage, man-made hazards became the main threat to society, and the other side of modernization began to emerge. People had to pay for the previous excessive development.

The concept of "risk society" presents its own meaning in the distinction with the realistic society and the harmonious society, which reflects the belief that the future has already begun. This is an era of living for the future, a new era of opening to the future. This evolution, the progress or retrogression, irreversible developing turbine not only to give us our sense of urgency to re-examine their own development is reasonable, in provides a view of the future of the road of development opportunity at the same time, also with invisible hand pull us into the meaning of existence and struggle the orbit of serious thinking of the time, the position of the era, and future goals. In the "risk society", doubt and trust, security and risk cannot achieve a long-term balance, and they are always in a state of tension and need to be adjusted through continuous reflection.

The theory of risk society is a kind of thinking about the late modern society by western scholars. It not only provides us with a theoretical perspective to interpret the risk society, but also prompts us to reflect on the problems of the transitional society. While drawing lessons from China, China should also notice the particularity of the economic, social, psychological and global risks that China is facing today, and create a national safety net through the interaction among the state, society and individual citizens, and finally form the risk social governance theory and strategy with Chinese characteristics.

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