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北美作业代写:State capitalism

2018-09-20 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- State capitalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国家资本主义。国家资本主义是相对私人资本主义而言的,由资本主义国家的政权与资本紧密结合而成的,其包括国家资本大规模的建立和国家政权对经济活动的控制。国家资本主义的主要实现形式是国有制,国家干预的主要形式就是经济调控政策,包括财政政策、产业政策、收入分配政策等。

State capitalism,国家资本主义,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Compared with private capitalism, state capitalism is formed by the close combination of regime and capital in capitalist countries. Its content mainly includes two aspects: one is the large-scale establishment of state capital, and the other is the powerful intervention and control of state power over economic activities. The main form of state capitalism is state ownership, and the main form of state intervention is economic regulation policies, including fiscal policies, monetary policies, industrial policies, income distribution policies and so on. There are two main reasons for the emergence of state capitalism. Second, the catch-up strategy of backward countries. State capitalism practiced after the second world war is largely due to these two reasons. Under the interlacing effect of these two reasons, the development of state capitalism is very rapid, presenting a state of multiple modes coexisting.

After world war ii, there were mainly four modes of state capitalism, namely "catch-up" state capitalism, "Keynesian" state capitalism, "rhineland" state capitalism and "planned" state capitalism. The countries carrying out "catch-up" state capitalism mainly include Japan, South Korea and other countries. Countries implementing "Keynesian" state capitalism are mainly developed countries such as the United States and Britain. Countries implementing "rhein-style" state capitalism mainly include countries along the Rhine river such as Germany and northern Europe, and countries implementing "planned" state capitalism are mainly India.

In different modes of state capitalism, the proportion of state economy is different, and the proportion of economy in China is higher in "catch-up" and "planned" state capitalism. In the "Keynesian" and "rhineline-style" state capitalism, the proportion of China's economy is relatively low. These different modes of state capitalism will use very different policies, means and methods when conducting state intervention, and the degree of intervention will also be very different. In the "catch-up" state capitalist countries, the national policies mainly focus on promoting "production". Nations in some relationship for the long-term development of key areas, basic and pillar of direct investment to establish state-owned enterprises, and through the industrial policy, tax policy to guide and encourage the investment direction of private enterprise, in the hope of country to industrialize rapidly in a relatively short period of time, achieve the goal of surpassing the advanced developed countries. It is characterized by the government not only controlling aggregate demand to maintain the balance of the economy, but also formulating a unified national economic development guidance plan. In countries that practice "Keynesian" state capitalism, national policies revolve mainly around expanding "demand". Countries mainly through fiscal policy, monetary policy, income policy to adjust the effective demand, as to avoid the large fluctuations of the economy, prevent the occurrence of the economic crisis, the main goal of state intervention is through the control of aggregate demand to maintain the balance of total supply and demand, create conditions for the role of market mechanism, the government does not do the general plan of economic development. In countries implementing "rhineline-style" state capitalism, national policies mainly revolve around how to reasonably "distribute". The direct state intervention in production activities is relatively small, but the political system strictly establishes a set of labor rights and welfare measures, and social fairness and labor rights are better reflected, with the basic characteristics of high wages, high taxes and high benefits. The Scandinavian countries of the postwar era also exemplify this. In countries with "planned" state capitalism, national policies are mainly developed around making "plans". The state controls the "commanding heights" in key, fundamental and pillar fields related to the development of the national economy. These countries have a very high proportion of state economy, and the state regulates the production of the national economy by formulating medium - and long-term plans.

The golden age of rapid development of state capitalism after the second world war was from the early postwar period to the early 1970s. Since then, the "stagflation" phenomenon in western developed countries caused by the first oil crisis, but keynesianism couldn't do anything about it, and national capitalism was questioned, especially "keynesianism". By the 1990s, there were major upheavals in eastern Europe, the collapse of the Soviet union, and a prolonged slump in Japan's economy, and more criticism of state capitalism. After the 1990s, "neoliberalism" made a comeback, and the policies of countries around the world began to turn to free-market capitalism. For a long time after that, state capitalism was ignored, and it was not until the outbreak of the subprime mortgage crisis in the United States in 2007 that people began to pay attention to and think about state capitalism again.

After world war ii, the productivity level of developing countries was low, the economic foundation was very weak, and the dual economic structure was obvious. Under this condition, most countries strengthened the leading role of government in economic development, and some countries chose the path of state capitalism. Take India as an example to introduce the characteristics of state capitalism in developing countries.

After the war, India, the largest developing country after China, practiced "planned" state capitalism. India's economy has long been seen as a "hybrid economy" that combines prescriptive planning with markets. India's "planned" state capitalism has several features. In the 1950s, India's market development was very low, and in the case of a fragile market foundation, the allocation of resources was mainly planned. India began to implement the five-year plan in 1951, which emphasized the development of heavy industry at the early stage and strengthened the development of agriculture and light industry at the later stage. Second, a large number of state-owned enterprises have been set up. India is heavily state-owned, accounting for about half of corporate assets, and all of the "" commanding heights" "are state sectors, including the steel, coal, fertiliser, oil, metals, electricity, railways, aviation, communications and other basic industrial and infrastructure sectors that limit private enterprise access. State-owned enterprises control the economic lifeline of the country and create conditions for the development of other economic components. Third, we will implement a strict licensing system. The government USES the "license system" as an important means of planning management, and enterprises need to apply to the "license committee" for permits to build, relocate, expand, develop new products or increase production beyond a certain proportion of the original production. Fourth, implement the control system. The state exercises strict control over the distribution of foreign exchange and the prices of a few important materials and products. Fifth, implement import substitution strategy. The government encourages research and development and production of blank domestic industries, and generally imposes relatively high tariffs on imported products.

India's "planned" state capitalism has helped India establish a relatively complete industrial system in a relatively short time, laying a good foundation for India's industrialization, and is of great significance for India's economic and political self-reliance. However, with the development of the economy, the negative effects of India's original system began to emerge. The original measures suffocated the vitality of enterprises and seriously restricted the development of the economy.

Since the 1980s, India has also carried out a major reform of its planning management system, stopping subsidies for domestic production and exports, reducing tariffs and trade barriers, eliminating 80 percent of industrial licenses, and abolishing the practice of requiring early permission for large companies to expand production or diversify their products. The government has even reopened the door to foreign investment and has begun to sell some of its state-owned shares. The government has not only reduced the scope of the programme and the means of direct administration, but has also paid more attention to the development of secondary markets. In the 1980s, India's capital market had a great development. Corporate financing turned more to the capital market rather than bank loans, allowing companies to survive and develop in the competition. Government controls on commodity prices have also been gradually relaxed. The government's sweeping reforms since the 1990s have made India's economy no small feat.

India's pre-1980s "planned" state capitalism bears many similarities to the traditional socialist planned economy. Both of them attach more importance to planning and less importance to the market. Both of them adopt the strategy of giving priority to the development of heavy industry. Both of them implement strict control policies on resources and prices. These similarities tell us that in both socialist and capitalist countries, in the early stage of economic development, "plan" is more advantageous than "market", but when the economy reaches a certain stage, "market" should be allowed to play more fundamental role.

Originated in the United States, the financial crisis triggered by the subprime mortgage crisis swept across the world, bringing huge impacts to the real economy of the world. The major developed countries in the west started to experience negative growth in the second half of 2008, and the growth rate of the world's most dynamic emerging markets, including China, also plummeted. The crisis was the result of a series of policies based on neo-liberalism in the 1980s and 1990s. This crisis has fully demonstrated the drawbacks of the free market economy and the inherent contradictions of the capitalist society are still hard to overcome. In the face of the crisis, countries around the world changed their slowness after the outbreak of the great depression in the 1930s. They took swift actions and launched large-scale economic stimulus plans. Some countries set off the climax of the "nationalization" movement, and national capitalism returned to people's view.

In the 1970s, the major countries of the capitalist world were Mired in stagflation. Faced with the dilemma, keynesianism was powerless, and major capitalist countries such as the United States and Western Europe began to turn to neoliberalism for remedies. Neoliberalism believes that the market mechanism of free competition can allocate resources most effectively, advocates reducing state intervention and participation, strengthens the role of market mechanism, emphasizes individual freedom and private enterprise system, and encourages the development of private enterprises. Neo-liberalism originated in the United States, but its most effective application and dissemination was in Britain. After the conservative Mrs. Thatcher came to power in 1979, she pushed forward the fiscal policy of "liberalization" and "tailoring". She also restores the economy by regulating the money supply, tightening monetary conditions, limiting government spending and reducing the deficit, while vigorously promoting privatization of public enterprises and encouraging private enterprises to compete with public ones. As a result, a wave of liberalization and privatization swept across Europe and the world. In 1980, the Reagan administration implemented the massive tax cut plan and reduced the federal government's intervention in the economy, and changed from the previous major use of fiscal policy to major use of monetary policy to intervene in economic activities. The collapse of the Soviet union and the collapse of eastern Europe in the 1990s further promoted the spread of neoliberalism around the world. "privatization, liberalization and marketization" became the standard of economic reform in the Soviet union. Countries with a strong sense of state capitalism, such as Japan and South Korea, have also reduced the degree of state intervention in the economy and allowed neo-liberal policies to prevail. But over the past 30 years, neo-liberal countries have not achieved the results they expected; The economy of the eastern Soviet country is still in chaos, growth is weak and social contradictions are becoming increasingly acute. Latin America's post-debt crisis malaise; Major countries, such as Britain, Germany and France, have not fundamentally reversed their sluggish economic growth. Japan's economy has been in the doldrums for a long time, with some years of negative growth. The financial crisis in 2008 thoroughly broke the myth of neoliberalism. The capitalist world began to reflect and find a new development idea.

In the history of capitalist development, state capitalism has always been associated with economic crises. Whenever the capitalist economic crisis comes, state interventionism will prevail, the government's role in the economy will be strengthened, and state capitalist policies will begin to prevail in all countries. And each time the crisis passed, state intervention declined, and state capitalist policies began to recede. The crisis is the biggest since world war ii, with major capitalist countries in recession. The United States was the source of the crisis and one of the worst recessions in the world. Its financial system has been decimated, industrial output has slumped, companies have been collapsing and unemployment has been rising. To prevent the crisis from spreading further, the us government launched a huge financial rescue plan. The U.S. government nationalized some of the largest financial insurance companies in financial crisis, such as buying 80% of aig. the largest insurance company in the United States, and buying 36% of citibank, the largest commercial bank in the United States. The government also ran the largest fiscal deficit in history, massively increasing government purchases and spending on infrastructure. The government's intervention in the economy is increasingly extensive and deep, and the color of state capitalism is increasingly deep. At the same time, other capitalist countries in the world also increased the government intervention, accelerated the process of nationalization, and national capitalism has a tendency to rise again.

As a kind of policy and means for the capitalist countries to cope with the economic crisis, state capitalism cannot change the nature of the capitalist society, nor can it eradicate the capitalist economic crisis. However, it mitigates the economic crisis to some extent and accelerates the economic recovery. Capitalist society has by private capitalism, monopoly capitalism to international monopoly capitalism now phase, concentration of production and monopoly has expanded from domestic to worldwide, the contradiction between the capitalist private ownership and the socialization of production will be further intensified, the economic crisis will become the norm in a capitalist society, so a capitalist economy will inevitably need more state intervention, state capitalism will exist for a long time and play an important role. Under the background of economic globalization, international monopoly capital is more closely integrated with state power in the development process. The state plays a more important role in exploiting international markets, formulating international trade rules, protecting domestic infant industries and transferring domestic crises. State capitalism has taken on a new form.

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