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北美作业代写:L/c payment risk in international trade

2018-07-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- L/c payment risk in international trade,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际贸易中的信用证支付风险。在国际贸易的支付中,信用欺诈是其中常见的现象之一,一般主要发生在买方导致卖方承担着巨大损失。要降低国际贸易支付中因信用问题而导致对方蒙受巨大损失的现象,就必须要基于当前现状进一步加强信用证的管理并严格执行,以最大程度上的将失信企业或个人排除在国际贸易之中,维护国际贸易的良好环境。

L/c,信用证支付风险,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Credit fraud is one of the common phenomena in payment in international trade. To reduce international trade payment due to credit problems lead to the phenomenon of the other party suffered huge losses, will have to be based on the current situation to further strengthen the management of l/c and strictly enforced, with maximum extent, enterprise or individual will be broken out in international trade, maintain the good environment of international trade. At the same time, if the bank not to ask for documents on the surface of the authenticity, just the surface make payment for the same data, then criminals can produce false documents there swindle money from the bank. Due to the cost of using the l/c fraud is less at the same time, the risk is small, the gains are bigger, so using the l/c fraud behavior in the world we see growth, which is one of the important factors that leads to the deterioration of the international trade environment.

First, the contract was cancelled due to the delay in issuing the l/c. For the sake of their own interests, the exporter may postpone or refuse to open the l/c in the aspect of issuing the l/c. Especially under the condition of larger when the exchange rate changes, the exporter to avoid due to growth rates and led to a decline in its earnings and then make a delay issuing or not issuing, thus forcing Banks to cancel the contract. Because, according to law, on the first day of the contract shipment date the issuing date is the best, but the seller can only determine the month of shipment, most of them cannot be determined in the specific which day for shipment. If the buyer does not prepare the l/c on the first day of shipment, the bank will not be able to make payment and the seller will not ship the goods. Second, according to the law, if a contract is to be effective, it requires the buyer to issue a letter of credit in accordance with the contract. Otherwise, the contract cannot be effective, which means the interests of both parties cannot be guaranteed. When there is no special regulation in the contract signed, generally implemented according to the conventional habits is performed in accordance with the UPC500, means that the buyer can't in the process of issuing additional accessories conditions for the settlement of exchange, not only will be rejected by the seller and could also face claims from each other.

In principle, the two sides signed a contract with the terms of the l/c is consistent, but there are various factors in the process of concrete operation, leading to the importer fails to open a letter of credit according to the rules, the contract to be executed, exports have suffered huge losses. On the one hand, due to the fast changing market information, the parties are likely to face the pressure of implementation, especially in the import side pressure is bigger, so imports may do not strictly follow the contract to open the l/c issuing or not, and so on and so forth. On the other hand, the importer requires to change the contract terms in order to maximize his own interests and minimize the risks in international trade. To achieve this purpose, the importer will most likely require attachment in the l/c terms and conditions for their own interests, to each other in the no conduct caused the difficulties of execution, and even eventually suffered huge losses.

Driven by interests, the importer will take advantage of the seriousness of the contract and the strictness of the letter of credit to increase the additional clause, so as to cause the other party difficulties in the performance of the contract. For example, add vague terms, add clauses that are in conflict with the contract, deliberately add errors, etc.

As l/c is the key to contract execution and payment, it is easy to be used by the importer to achieve its own purpose. The most common is to use the expired letter of credit to defraud the goods of the other party. At this time, the exporter can only rely on professionals or Banks to screen them.

Import l/c through illegal means to get bank of blank, or illegally manufacturing methods such as malicious collusion with the bank clerk false l/c to the exporter, the exporter if negligence did not find, will cause a great loss.

If did not delivery, increasingly, in terms of the contract, the date of shipment samples approved by inspection and so on to make clear a regulation, especially the provisions of the above date need to be further notice in order to carry out, is most likely because the notice less or no notice and lead to the final deal abortion, cause huge losses to the seller.

Whether it is international trade or domestic trade, the credibility of both parties is of vital importance. The credibility of both parties directly affects the security of bilateral trade. For both sides, to protect their legal interests in the process of trading and not easy to sign the contract and should be in advance of each other's basic situation investigation, to get to know each other whether have good reputation, especially if there is a default behavior. Only when the other party has a good reputation can the contract be signed and the specific transaction be carried out.

In international trade due to differences in goods specifications or types of transactions, the bank in the letter of credit? _ process differ, the trade both parties based on protect the interests of both sides, and the purpose of the largest extent, reduce the risk of trading shall apply raw bank according to the actual circumstances of the actual transaction puts forward specific requirements to all kinds of certificate, and requires both parties to strictly carry out. At the same time, the buyer may also require the seller to provide the certificate issued by the professional quality inspection authorities on the interim delivery of documents to protect its own interests.

For the buyer, the seller's falsification of the documents is a common occurrence, and if the inspection fails, the loss will be large. On the contrary, for the seller, the buyer may also cheat on the documents or certificates, and the loss is also huge. Therefore, for both parties, the following two points should be achieved in the transaction process: first, strictly follow the contract and formulate various documents; Secondly, strict inspection of all kinds of information in documents is carried out according to the content of the contract and the actual transaction situation, so as to avoid the discovery of false documents. Finally, if there is any fraud in the documents, the transaction should be stopped in time and the other party should be held accountable in accordance with the law.

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