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北美作业代写:The ecological thought of western marxism

2018-03-19 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The ecological thought of western marxism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方马克思主义的生态思想。随着西方生态运动范围不断扩大和绿色政治兴起,出现了不同的解决生态问题的新思想,这些新思想也出现在西方马克思主义里。西方马克思主义者对资本主义进行了批判且指出解决生态问题的根本办法就是走一条人类中心主义的道路,改变当下资本主义社会制度,建立生态社会主义制度。这个思想使西方马克思主义被赋予了新的时代意义,拓展和丰富了马克思主义,但亦有其理论上的缺失和可操作性的缺失。

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In western traditional culture, anthropocentrism is the dominant ideology, and it is a kind of theory with human being the center of the universe. The idea was first expressed by ancient Greece, that "man is the measure of all things". The Renaissance philosopher's enlightenment thought gradually formed the ideological trend of subjective idealism, it claims that human is the center of the universe, the real world, things are created by human beings, emphasized the subject status of human beings. With the rise of the ecological movement or the green revolution, there is a view of nature opposed to anthropocentrism. It advocates that there is no distinction between people and non-human beings, and the point is to consider the relationship between people and nature from the perspective of ecological holism, that is, ecological centralism. Anthropocentrism think people only has natural intrinsic value, human has all things only instrumental value, so the human can for their own needs, desire, and benefit to the development and utilization of natural resources, is in the service of human nature; Ecological centre doctrine, believes that human is not the only carrier of intrinsic value, the human is not more important than humans have, non-human also has intrinsic value, human and non-human is equal, too much interference in the human nature, ecological imbalance, caused by overpopulation, only the nature as a tool in the service of human. Anthropocentrism and ecocentrism are two diametrically opposed views of nature, which are fundamentally antagonistic to the relationship between man and nature. Fights in the face of the two kinds of thoughts and marxism dialectical view of the ecological problems, to avoid the stop on the dualism of the relation between man and nature, in the western marxist ecological thought initially formed a kind of weak anthropocentrism.

Ecological marxists believe that ecological centralism is the opposite of the intrinsic value and the external value of nature. It is impossible to achieve human development, but it has conceived a utopia. In Marx's view, "the essence of nature is only to the people of society; Because only in the society, nature is the link between man and man, that is, the existence of others and the existence of others, is the real life factor of man; Only in society, nature is the basis of human existence. With radical distinct ecological socialists is that Marx's thought of natural intrinsic value lies in the labor, the whole human history is the process of the formation process of nature and human, is the process of human interaction by labor and nature. "As the creator of the use value of labor, as a useful work, is not in all social situation for the transfer of human existence conditions, is the material transformation between human and nature that is eternal natural inevitability of human life are realized." "Labor is the process between man and nature, and the process of mediating, adjusting and controlling the material transformation between man and nature." Marx compared the differences between human and animal production, and the animals only met the production according to the scale they needed, while the production of human beings was purposeful and subjective. And the unique subjective initiative of human beings lies in whether it respects the objective laws of nature: "we should not be excessively intoxicated with our human victory over nature. For every such victory, nature takes revenge on us. ......The whole power of our dominion over nature is that we are stronger than all other creatures, able to understand and use the laws of nature correctly. Humans can know nature occupied by labor, become the master of nature, and can use labor to transform nature and make nature to human beings to provide more and better conditions, provide better environment for human habitation. Thus it can be seen that Marx's value proposition of nature is neither rush like ecological centre doctrine, nor only human centers like anthropocentrism, two opposite attitude, it wants to explore a mild "weak anthropocentrism" ecological thoughts.

Although ecological marxism and western anthropocentrism green think anthropocentrism values themselves, there is no problem and the values of ecology is accelerated, this was the question of western marxists, they don't think ecological marxism is based on the ecological science, despite the "human, social, and natural connection, too much emphasis on labor value, the value of nature as instrumental, and the intrinsic value of nature itself has not been highlighted, so mistaken for marxism and anthropocentrism is no different. "In addition to the need of human, it don't think there is the need of the 'natural', and as it says in essence communist society can't be in the society of ecologically unhealthy, it claims that a proper ecological community in nature cannot support social injustice, when conflicts, it always makes the human also need better than that of non-human." The ecological marxism know to solve the relationship between the good and natural, but it is not completely copy according to sets of anthropocentrism, and it is the value of anthropocentrism to fix and defense, is refining its special content accurately, conversion is the pay attention to the human spirit and other aspects of non-material level.

Ecology marxism and has always insisted that the economy is the highest, materialistic supreme service based in the capital of anthropocentrism values is different, it is advocated by the "a long-term collective anthropocentrism, rather than a classical to achieve personal center socialist anthropocentrism. Therefore, it is committed to achieving sustainable development, both for physical reasons and for its desire to evaluate nature in a non-material way. This is based on the social system of osmosis, the relation between man and nature is not disdainful of labor and ignore the nature itself, on the basis of social system, emphasizes the importance of the social system to humanized nature, is a fixed single the connotation of the anthropocentrism. Therefore, Marx put forward the view of nature that "makes nature true to life" and "the contradiction between man and nature". As Mr Parsons puts it, Marx and Engels understood the ecological approach before "ecology", "ecological crisis" and "energy crisis". Marcuse also to the liberation of the "natural" explained: "the liberation of the natural means to find that it improve the power of the life, to rediscover the perceptual quality of beauty, the environment in the endless competition wasted life is strange; These qualities indicate a new quality of freedom. Marcuse thinks that nature is not only to the liberation of control and use of technology, critical technology in academic, the bourgeoisie is through the control of the technology to control the proletariat, which is the control of man by man, also need to enlarge the control of nature, this is a kind of pessimism in the view of technology, the natural evolution of political struggle, the control of alienation is a natural and ecological crisis. Ecological marxists do not agree that man is a natural source of pollution; Human beings are not born to be greedy and aggressive, but human genes are not. People have these habits because of the social system that causes them; In essence, they hold the view of the human nature. In general, western marxist values to the ecosystem is neither like ecocentrism emphasized only established the "natural" in academic theory of "natural rights", put the human as a natural part of the human to change that nature is a tool, not like the anthropocentrism is always in their own interests, find any human desire is reasonable and should be satisfied, and it's not constrained by the human ecological values is the mainly ecological or give priority to with the human, do not go to extremes, but through the way of practice to explore the energy exchange relations between human and nature, and does not destroy the natural cause natural burden, also can let the human in the natural environment good, definitely the main body status of human in nature, and nature truly shangdi harmony, this is a kind of humanized nature humanism ideas of weak anthropocentrism.

Because of the western ecological marxism want to take a "mild weak anthropocentrism" roads, and the basic way to solve the ecological crisis is the change of social system, they identify the system of capitalism is an ecological, capitalist mode of production is profit blindly without considering the ecological bearing capacity. So western marxist view of nature is not above the in class, from the beginning has been closely connected and social system, put forward by criticism of the capitalist system can solve the ecological problems of the ecological system of socialism. From the beginning of environmental pollution, the western developed countries started environmental movement. Among them are the well-known earth day activities and the environmental justice movement. At the same time, environmental groups have also set up and to expand the trend, this makes the ecological movement has extensive mass base, finally become a real global movement, governments have involved, state management environment, the government making decisions about environmental protection, environmental protection movement is huge, the government set up to protect the environment of institutions and laws, until later become a part of the international political and environmental protection, the United Nations has established a series of convention on environmental protection, the environmental problems to return to the European Community management, is the environmental diplomacy. At the same time, the western marxism will be closely related to the environmental problems of capitalism, points out that the infinite expansion of capitalism leads to people's consumption alienation, people more and more get the control of material, make the grim situation of environmental damage, ecological crisis is inevitable. With the expansion of the ecological movement, the ecological movement gradually shifted to ecological politics, and the green party emerged. They use marxist critique of capitalism, is pointed out that the source of ecological crisis is the capitalist system, finally it is concluded that the best way to solve the ecological crisis is to establish ecological socialism.

Western ecological marxism from a different perspective criticize the irrationality of the capitalist system and the properties of its against nature, mainly from the system technology, and the critical perspective of three consumption. Marx put forward the contradiction caused by the economic crisis of capitalism will eventually lead to production mode change is the first heavy traditional capitalist contradictions, and there are two kinds of "rather than a kind of inherent contradiction and crisis of capitalism" is the second contradiction of the capitalism. The second contradiction of capitalism is a productivity, production relations and the contradiction between production conditions, the first heavy contradiction is caused by the economic crisis, while the second contradiction is caused by the ecological crisis. Production conditions "it is not produced as a commodity and produced according to the laws of values or market forces, but it is treated by capital as a commodity." Therefore, it is decided that capitalist production and ecology have an inevitable connection -- the interaction between the two constraints. The accumulation process of capitalism is a process of exploitation, the improvement of workers' productivity, the degree of exploitation of capitalists and the profits obtained. Thus, the unlimited expansion of capital is positively correlated with the exploitation of natural resources. Capitalism and the management of the enterprise violates the coordination between the life and the balance between production and the nature, the focus is on how to spend less cost to create greater exchange value and profit, this is the ultimate goal of any business, but this is an ecological. The relationship between people, people and nature shown by capitalism is money, and money is a measure of all things. Money makes things in nature dissimilated.

Economic production is a straight line, has violated the natural circulation system, ecological be excluded at this stage, the line is simply to become waste from the resource directly, capitalist economy only care about whether to produce the high profits, ignored the nature of the production of recycling. In capitalism, the market is the means of profit, it becomes the rule of natural law and social law. The erroneous view of capitalism is that nature is free, the gift of nature to mankind, desperately destructive use, and the environment is on the verge of collapse. For how to deal with the relations between and among production, ecology, consumption, how to try to change to capitalism, ecological marxist advocates a ecological transformation strategy, mainly from the community, between the government and the community in maintaining worker's right to exist, ACTS against profits regardless of the ecology and access to capital, the government through revolution means to establish a fair and sustainable development of ecological socialism democracy. Consumption in the capitalist economy, people's life from the traditional "enough is ok" and "abundance", produced a slowly is not what you need is in buying large quantities of production and sales, such as private homes, cars, electronics, cosmetics, health products, etc., and then produced the category of "economic rationality". The disadvantage lies in the relationship between people become a kind of money, is a tool of the relationship between human and nature, and economic rationality leads to the irrational, ecological crisis and the appearance of the new slaves.

By the way of thinking can analysis and solve the ecological problem is to realize the change of capitalism to socialism, and the best way to change is as much as possible to achieve workers democratic autonomy, labor as a way to realize the desire of the people and the value of a kind of environmental justice of ecological socialism. This is a social model of human sustainable development, which should not only solve human's self-alienation, but also solve the alienation of the world. The development of eco - socialist economy is not the most important aspect. This is in line with Marx's view that the sustainable development of mankind is to solve the problem of the renewal of human and nature through labor. Socialism understood to change the exploitative relationship of capitalism society and production information system of ownership, eliminate injustice and serious polarization, not just in between people, more covers the entire biosphere. It is a trend and a reasonable way to solve the ecological problems by combining the producers and regulating their alternation with nature, which is related to the continuous development of human beings. True ecological socialism must end capitalism's destructive renewal and replace it with a new social system that harmonizes with the earth's ecology.

Western marxist ecological thought to become a mainstream among ideas, this is because it can solve in the development of the new reality of global problems, continuity and time, to solve the ecological problems has been clear about the direction for us. Through the analysis of the crux of the ecological problems, and points out that the capitalist mode of production ignored the long-term interests of mankind, one-sided pursuit of economic interests, its expansion and the damage spread to developing countries, led to a global ecological problems. Ecological marxism thought on capitalism error behavior has carried on the profound criticism, and design the future vision of ecological socialism, provides a strong theoretical support for its implementation and victory. Capitalism on the one hand, the main goal is to maximize the pursuit of interests, proactive, see only the immediate interests, this kind of mode of production caused the "alienation" and "consumption alienation", the ecological problem is becoming more and more serious. Western marxist ecological thought analysis the reason of the phenomenon and the essence of the phenomenon behind, criticizes the capitalist mode of production, think "consumption alienation" is the main cause of the ecological problems, hope for humans to find a new way of life. Ecological marxists, by pointing out the problems of traditional marxism, that is, traditional marxism only CARES about the production field and ignores the consumption field. In order to delay the emergence of economic crisis, modern capitalism has made large-scale production and excessive consumption, so that people can use alienated consumption to alleviate their views on alienated labor. Such abuses are very large, environmental destruction, waste of resources, ecological imbalance and the final economic crisis.

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