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美国作业代写:The food aid

2017-11-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The food aid,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了粮食援助。如今国际社会对爆发饥荒的国家的粮食援助主要有三种方式。首先,紧急粮食援助,这种方式是通过实物粮食援助受饥荒影响的人。其次,节目粮食援助,商品被直接运送至接收方政府或其他代理人,它通常被用于解决长期饥荒。最后,项目粮食援助,这是捐赠,以支持通过非政府组织和政府间组织特定项目,是用来防止未来饥荒的。

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International community includes stats, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), other international organisations, and so on, who have common duties and obligations existing among them in solving development problems, like famine(Fassbender, 2009). Famine is defined as the reduction of food availability and entitlement, and result in widespread morbidity, which was originally caused by a sequence of processes and events(Downing, 1990). According to de Waal (1991),famine is preventable in theory, no matter from its root or process, but it needs various resources from the international community. The most common approach they used to combat famine is food aid. Food aid can be regarded as a positive tool for it works effectively in famine relief, while it produces several dismal results for recipients as well (Clay, 1996). This essay will evaluate whether the international community has worked effectively in solving famine through analysing three types of food aid, they are emergency, program, and project food aid.

There are mainly three types of food aid that international community implemented in famine countries. First, emergency food aid, which is often used in times of crisis, such as conflict and disaster. NGOs and World Food Program (WFP) are the main administrators in this aid, through freely distributing in-kind food aid to crisis-affected people. Second, program food aid, commodities is delivered directly to a recipient government or other agents bilaterally (Barrett & Maxwell, 2005). Typically, conditionality is often associated, and it is commonly used to solve the long-term famine. Governments are the core part in this kind of food aid. Finally, project food aid, which is donated to support particular projects through NGOs and IGOs, and is related to promoting further economic and agricultural development. This kind of food aid mainly attributes to prevent future famine.

In terms of the emergency food aid, which can be called relief food aid, is mainly a food-based aid. Because of immediate crisis threats to lives and short-term stability, emergency food aid is considered as the most effective and efficient method to implement(OECD, 2006). In such an urgent situation, international community cooperate with governments of affected countries together to organise various resources to support the frontline of famine. For example, famine in Africa during 1991 to 1993, assistances provided by IGOs and NGOs moved quickly in limiting the ifluencess of famine on the people’s livelihoods and containing suffering. Emergency food aid also acts as an essential part in saving lives in famine. According to a recent survey, most of emergency food aid met the primary objective of feeding lives temporary, even in a further case, it maintains and improve nutritional status (ALNAP, 2004). Additionally, although emergency food aid with large scale is only examined systematically for a short time, it was operated in southern Africa’s famine in the 1980s to 1990s with necessary influences in death prevention. However, there are several shortcomings existed in response to famines. The late arrival of emergency food aid sometimes obstructs famine recovery(Murphy & McAfee, 2005). For example, the USA averagely takes five months to ship its aid to the destination, which resulted in less rapid response to the famine. Also because of the poor transfer efficiency between national and regional areas, emergency food aid could not target the most affected refugees.

Another benefits of emergency food aid is it can construct a temporary safety-net for the suffering people, and protect them from slipping further into famine and hungry(Harvey & Proudlock, 2010).The evaluation evidence proofs that these interventions have a role in narrowing damaging impacts and the suffering on livelihoods. Nevertheless, inflexible relief can displace local production(Barrett & Maxwell, 2005). It may create disincentives for local food producers and undermine poor farmers’ livelihoods, by flooding markets and depressing prices. For example, during or after famine, countries could recover though redistribute or market commodities, while huge amounts of food aid replaced the countries’ ability to recover by themselves and destroy domestic production. This problem was highlighted in the 1980s, which contributed to the Sahel group of countries established of the code of good conduct (OECD, 2011). Southern Africa also went through such experience in the 1990s, countries such as Mozambique was largely affected. Thus, better coordination, cooperation and strengthening assessment are needed to combat famine by the international community.

In terms of program food aid, people who support it think that program food aid can help famine-affected countries to fight against famine and hunger effectively(Levinsohn & McMillan, 2007). However, some argued that this kind of food aid works ineffectively in sustainable economic development no matter in national level or local level. For instance, the assessment of program food aid which was taken by the EU, shows that its program food aid was ineffective in alleviating the current famine situation and future famine prevention in recipient countries (Clay, 1996).Haiti, like other Less Developed Countries (LDCs), was largely depended on program food aid, which mainly from the US during the past two decades. This kind of food aid resulted in declining food prices, and undermined local agricultural development(Oxfam, 2005). This will not effectively alleviate famine and hunger.

Another drawback of the program food aid is it might distort consumer preference to imported food, rather than domestically produced one(Chowdhury & Haggblade, 2000). For instance, during the famine in the mid 1970s and 1980s, massive amount of rice and wheat were shipped into the West African Sahel. According to Byerlee(1987), these food aid stimulated shift the consumers’ demand towards more western crops, such as wheat. Nevertheless, the local produced crops and animals were undermined, which made the famine-affected countries hard to recover from the disaster, also, the lack of western crops apart from the food aid may cause famine in the future. Moreover, the limited kind of food available to food aid resulted in difficulties to provide socially appropriate food (Shoham, 2000). For example, the GM maize was served as program food aid from the US to the southern African in 2002, caused mass sensitivities and oppressions to receive the aid in recipient countries. This may lead to distribution inflexibility in the famine (Hansch & Steven, 2004). Additionally, there is also a problem about culturally appropriate. Traditionally, people in eastern and southern Africa preferred white maize, while most of the food aid is yellow maize. In certain famine cases, due to incompatibility with local preference and poor quality, international community could not achieve the destinations they intended and beneficiaries could not receive the aid they needed most.

In terms of project food aid, it could be given to a government, agencies and NGOs. For example, the WFP and various NGOs administered different kinds of project food aid to support further developmental projects in famine and after the famine. There is a kind of food-base intervention of project food aid for direct distribution, whose object is to provide short-term livelihood to the neediest, and to offer immediate nutritional benefits(Mousseau & Mittal, 2005). This intervention could reach the most crisis-affected groups, such as children and women. For instance, the Food for work (FFW) provides physical investment in the disaster area, which benefits for long-term famine prevention. Moreover, in order to improve the nutritional situation, school meals were provided to students, and health care was provided to female and children-targeted vulnerable groups(WFP, 2004). Additionally, for long-term famine prevention, human resources development and health education training projects were also combined. However, there is exclusion existed. The poorest and most crisis affected people who failed to attend mother and child health centres and other shelter could still suffer the famine(WFP, 1999).Many projects did achieve their primary objects and reach intended beneficiaries, while other groups of people were not linked to the project design, distribution, and monitoring benefit flows.

Another benefit of project food aid is the nutritional improvement and its long-term effects toward famine(Shaw, Clay, & World Food, 1993). A US project called PL480 Title II achieved some progresses on short-term improvements in nutritional status, which was provided through NGOs (Bonnard & Haggerty, 2002). There is a close connection between children’s nutritional status and project food aid in both short-term and long-term famine. For instance, FFW has made a great contribution to children aged 0 to 5in low-asset households, and free distributions of project food aid also benefit children as well. Whereas, complementary non-food inputs shortage is project food aid’s shortcoming in solving famine. This issue was highlighted in 1990s, and both the EU and the USA made effort to it(Fletcher, 1991). For example, in 1996, the EU allows NGOs to use the budget for financial aid, which should be used in food aid; and the USPL480 Title II regulation allows more project food aid to fund complementary non-food inputs. Apart from governments and IGOs, NGOs also use funds to organised several activities to improve the food situation and devote to preventing further famine (Tschirley & Howard, 2003).

To conclude, international community shows its substantive roles in the development issues, such as famine. However, the roles it plays can be both effective and ineffective. As the role of the international community in the food aid has already been evaluated in terms of three kinds of food aid, which are emergency, program, and project food aid, it is apparently that different components in the international community, including IGOs, NGOs and states are cooperating more on the development issues. Nevertheless, challenges that international community meets today are still various, since there are still over 850 million chronically malnourished people after famine. Therefore, food aid is not enough to solve the famine problem thoroughly. The international community should help to provide more additional assistances to solve this development problem fundamentally(WFP, 2003).

Reference list

ALNAP. (2004). Review of Humanitarian Action 2003, Active Learning Network for Acfountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action. London: Overseas Development Institution.

Barrett, C. B., & Maxwell, D. G. (2005). Food aid after fifty years : recasting its role. London: Routledge.

Bonnard, P., & Haggerty, P. (2002). Report of the Food aid and Food Security Assessment: A Review of the Title II Development Food Aid Program. Washington, DC: FANTA.

Byerlee, D. (1987). The Political Economy of Third World Food Imports: The Case of Wheat. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35(2), 307-328.

Chowdhury, N., & Haggblade, S. (2000). Evolving rice and wheat markets. In R. Ahmed & S. Haggblade (Eds.), Out of the shadow of famine: evolving food markets and policy in Bangladesh. Baltimore: John Hopkins.

Clay, E. (1996). Joint evaluation of European union programme food aid. London: Overseas Development Institute.

de Waal, A. (1991). Famine and Human Rights. Development in Practice, 1(2), 77-83.

Downing, T. (1990). Assessing socio-economic Vulnerability to Famine: Frameworks, Concepts and Applications. Washington: USAID.

Fassbender, B. (2009). The United Nations Charter as the constitution of the international community. Leiden ; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Fletcher, J. (1991). Chronic Famine and the Immorality of Food Aid: A Bow to Garrett Hardin. Population and Environment, 12(3).

Hansch, & Steven. (2004). Genetically modified food in the Southern African food crisis of 2002-2003. Washington DC: Institute of the Study of International Migration.

Harvey, P., & Proudlock, K. (2010). Food aid and food assistance in emergency and transitional contexts: a review of current thinking. London: Humanitarian Policy Group.

Levinsohn, J., & McMillan, M. (2007). Does Food Aid Harm the Poor? Household Evidence from Ethiopia. In A. Harrison (Ed.), Globalization and Poverty (pp. 561-598). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mousseau, F., & Mittal, A. (2005). Food Aid or Food Sovereignty: The Oakland Institute.

Murphy, S., & McAfee, K. (2005). U.S. Food Aid: Time to Get It Right: The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.

OECD. (2006). The development effectiveness of food aid : does tying matter? Paris: OECD.

OECD. (2011). The Sahel and West Africa Club, Working Together For Regional Integration: OECD.

Oxfam. (2005). Food aid or hidden dumping?, Separating wheat from chaff: Oxfam.

Shaw, J., Clay, E. J., & World Food, P. (1993). World food aid : experiences of recipients & donors. Rome: London : Portsmouth.

Shoham, J. (2000). Humanitarian crisis and conflict: food assistance and nutritional security issues. In E. J. Clay (Ed.), Food Aid and Human Security (pp. 149-180). Portland: Frank Cass.

Tschirley, D., & Howard, J. (2003). Title II food aid and agricultural development in Sub-Saharan Africa: towards a principled argument for when and when not to monetize, International Development Working Paper 81. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

WFP. (1999). Enabling Development, Executive Board Annual Session, 17-20 May, 1999. Rome.

WFP. (2003). Summary Report of the ‘Real Time’ Evaluation of WFP’s Response to the Southern Africa Crisis, 2002-03, EB 3/2003– Agenda Item Evaluation Reports. Rome.

WFP. (2004). School Feeding Programs:  Why They Should Be Scaled Up Now.

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