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The Truth of Verbal Overshadowing--论文代写范文精选

2015-09-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文


51due论文代写网精选代写范文:“The Truth of Verbal Overshadowing”。这篇文章主要讲述了语言在生活中的各种运用方法;以及几种不同情况下对使用语言的影响因素。“根据言语描述侧重点的不同可以分为特征描述和整体描述。”

I,The Existence of Verbal Overshadowing Verbal Overshadowing Effect (VOE) is the obstacle effect to the non linguistic cognition. The researchers found that the factors affecting the verbal overshadowing effect of words: time factor, verbal description task, distraction task, recognition test, individual difference, etc.. There are three kinds of theories about the interpretation of the word shadowing effect: the theory of recording interference, the inappropriate processing and transformation, and the standard conversion theory. Future research should focus on the content of the content or the content of the extraction.

It is commonly believed that a verbal description of an external stimulus can help to remember. However, it is found that when the memory of the event is difficult to grasp with the language, the verbal description but a loss of memory, resulting in memory illusion. This is the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). The shadowing effect of words and phrases is an obstacle to the non linguistic cognition.Jonathan Schooler and Engstler-Schooler first discovered this phenomenon.

Testers were asked to watch a video of a bank robbery for 30 seconds, followed by 20 minutes of distraction, asking to read several passages and answer questions about it. Then the subjects were divided into two groups, treated with different treatments. Asked a group of subjects to write down the face of the robbery in detail, the other group was scheduled to do with the activities of them. The first group of subjects, identify criminals accuracy is greatly decreased, the accuracy rate was 38%, the accuracy rate of second group was 64%.

This result is contrary to the positive effect of Bartlett and Daniel .

II, Influencing Factors

Time Factor

Time factor mainly from the encoding delay and description of the delay in two aspects. After encoding delay (post-encoding) is to delay the time of encoding. Such as extended target stimulus presentation and verbal descriptions of time intervals, from instant to 48 hours. Delay post description (description) is the time interval for the extension of the language description and the recognition test. Meissner and Brigham show that the delay is an important variable, and the delay time is an important factor affecting the VOE generation. VOE disappeared when the interval was greater than 30 minutes. However, if the delay time is short (such as less than 10 minutes), there will be VOE. Another time factor is the time limit for the recognition test. Most studies did not limit the time to identify the target stimulus, and a few studies were limited to 5 seconds. The study of Jonathan Schooler and seventeenth volume second term shadowing effects and the research on the theory of Engstler-Schooler show that the VOE effect is eliminated when the time is defined to distinguish the target stimulus. However, Dodson found that the time limit for identifying the target stimulus was not affected by VOE.

Types of Verbal Descriptions

There are three types of language used in previous studies:

The first one is to be asked to produce a verbal description of itself, which is the most commonly used method in the study of VOE. The second one is to give the test to provide a ready-made description. That is, read the language description, such as to allow the subjects to read the words of the target faces. Dodson and Meissner, Brigham and Kelly studies show that, even in this condition, there will be VOE.  The third kind is the speech description of the non target stimulus. Which is the description of the face and the face is required to recognize the face is different. Dodson 's study found that the verbal description of the non - target faces is also an obstacle to the recognition of the target faces

Language Description

Meissner and his partner in the study were given to the subjects of forced recall, free recall or warning of memory. Forced recall is required to be tried to provide the best possible detailed and comprehensive description of the target, even though some of the details are not determined. Free recall is required to try to describe the target face. Warning of the recall is required to be tried only to determine the details of the remember, can not determine the details do not describe. They found that VOE was only in the first condition.

Focus on the Task of Speech Description

According to the different focus of the speech description can be divided into a feature description and the overall description (or configural descriptions featural). A description of a face is often described as a feature description, as well as an overall description. Feature description refers to the description of the object's parts, such as the eyes, nose, mouth, and hair. The overall description of the object is described as a whole, such as personality, age, and occupation, and so on. MacLin found that the description of the characteristics of the VOE, the description does not appear as a whole. Kitagami 's conclusion is that two cases are VOE, these results are not consistent.

Distraction Task after Verbal Description

Several studies have examined the effects of VOE on the task of speech recognition and face recognition. The main purpose is to study the effect of VOE. on the VOE Finger found that when subjects were required in this period to solve the maze problem or discrimination of pitch task, VOE effect becomes weak a lot, if in the completion of words

Presentation Sequence and Selection Method of Recognition Tests

In most of the VOE studies, all of them are targeted to exist (i.e., to choose the target to be included in the sequence), and some of the researchers use the target absent sequence (i.e., the target is not included in the presented sequence). In contrast, in the choice of methods, some studies have used forced choice (that is, the choice of the target), some of the research uses a free choice (the target may be presented in the sequence, it may not be). Clare and Lewandowsky showed that there were interaction between these two factors, and the influence of different conditions on VOE was different. However, the results of Meissner, Memon and Rose showed that the target presentation and target deletion had no effect on VOE.

Individual Difference Influence

VOE is the main factor that is the subject of the feeling and the ability to describe the language. A study has found that verbal descriptions can affect the ability of high sensory and low verbal description. But this result has yet to be further confirmed. Memon and Bartlet found that this factor had no effect on VOE. Fallshore and Schooler found that people were more likely to have higher perceived low language stimuli than VOE. They think, people have a high perception of the national face of low verbal description of the characteristics of the non - this nation has a low perception and high language description of the characteristics. Vanag 's research showed that subjects who were tested to identify the ethnic and non ethnic groups were better than the non native. And the study also found that the cognitive style (characteristic or whole body) of the subjects was found to be the result of the sound recognition.

Another study is about professional wine tasting and non professional research, Melcher and Schooler in the study to be divided into novice, intermediate professional, expert three (in accordance with the frequency of their drinking), the novice is a low, low language ability, intermediate professional staff is high, low language ability, experts are high feeling, high language ability. Their study found that VOE is more likely to be found in the new body.

Cognitive psychologists tend to decompose the information processing process into some stages, that is, the whole process from the input to the response to the response of the whole process of decomposition. They often use the reaction time method. To determine the nature of the process and the relationship with other processes by measuring the time needed for a process.

III,Cognitive Psychology and Verbal Overshadowing Effect

Assuming a person looks at the screen projection of the E, if the projection time is very short, such as a millisecond, then the people will not see what, the projection time is longer, such as five milliseconds, then this person will see something, but do not know what, but the distinction is not produced; if the projection time is enough to make people see this letter is not O or E, but can not see is F or K, then the people will have a part of the identification. From this, people can determine the time of complete identification, partial identification, or just to see what is needed. All this suggests that perception is cumulative, and it includes several specific phases.

Reaction time study is also a convergence proof method. Cognitive psychologists use a lot of choices, rather than simply reacting. Because the selection response can provide more information about the internal state.

Human cognitive ability is the computer can never completely replace. Merriam Webster's dictionary is so defined, behavior and cognition process, including awareness and judgment -- is your laptop will never have. Cognitive psychology studies memory, perception, thinking, and intelligence, how our brains perceive, process and store information. You will learn from our mental processes, like the effects of mood swings, how we can control and patience. Cognitive psychology majors focus on the details that make sense, attention, and reasoning. You also need to study a number of psychological processes, such as problem solving and decision. The profession will allow you to touch on past research and research in the present, and even a lot of professional requirements for your independence or to assist research projects. You will understand how cognitive psychology is, in what kind of position, and where it is brought to you by the study of the previous problems, achievements and theories. As in most psychology, cognitive psychology is largely a cross disciplinary subject, and your learning subjects will be selected from the following disciplines: philosophy, linguistics, statistics, and other areas of psychology, such as social, clinical and developmental psychology.

IV, Conclusion

After knowing the overshadowing in the psychology principle, you can better explain people's daily lives in a variety of verbal and non-verbal phenomena, we can guide people to know the truth behind the verbal overshadowing, guide people to benefits or avoid harm, correct understanding of their heart language, cognitive psychology, psychology and neuropsychology of memory, to strengthen language, strengthen cognitive feeling, enhance memory, to control their nervous system, making themselves more healthy, work more efficiently, the mood more cheerful.   Looking ahead ,verbal overshadowing cognitive psychology will close connected with cognitive linguistics and neurophysiology,the psychology is more and more wonderful.So,what will the verbal overshadowing effect look like in the future?Let me have a deepening research.

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