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Family Planning Policy in China

2015-06-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

Since the family planning policy was implemented in China, it has aroused heated debates around the issue that whether it should be continued. What needs to be admitted is that family planning policy does have both advantages and disadvantages. Instead of attempting to cover up either the advantage or disadvantage, this essay aims to analyze which one affects China more. After balancing, the author believes that the stringent family planning policy should be abandoned, because the disadvantage it brings outweighs the advantage.
From the basic point of view that family planning policy violates human rights, it should be abdicated. Giving brith to children is the nature as well as the basic right of human beings. Every one has the right to choose whether they want kids or not and how many kids they want. It is cruel for them to sacrifice the joyfulness of bearing children in order to obey the policy and avoid punishment. That is also the perspective from which foreign countries criticize the family planning policy.
Combined with the current demographic structure in China, also, family planning policy should be abandoned. According to Chen PC and Kols A, “With this policy, China has reduced its birthrate from 34/1000 in 1970 to 18/1000 in 1979. By 1980, as a result of the recent campaign for 1 child families, an estimated 51% of all births in China were 1st births. By 1981 over 1/2 of all couples with 1 child had pledged not to have another”. From these figures, it is not difficult to conclude that there are far more old people in China’s society than young people today. It, at the same time, discloses two severe problems: lack of labor forces and an aging population. According to Therese Hesketh, Ph.D., Li Lu, M.D., and Zhu Wei Xing, M.P.H., “In China, the percentage of the population over the age of 65 years was 5 percent in 1982 and now stands at 7.5 percent but is expected to rise to more than 15 percent by 2025”. Therefore, the limited amount of young people today in China bear the unprecedented great pressure of supporting the large amount of old people. Moreover, the lack of young people also means the insufficiency of initiative and creativity. China now is experiencing a  progressing prosperity, which means that it needs substantial talents and wisdom to support its development and continue the upward trend. Low birth rate, in the long run would be a deadly strike for the strengthening of China.
Another problem brought by family planning policy is the imbalanced sex ratio. According to Therese Hesketh, Ph.D., Li Lu, M.D., and Zhu Wei Xing, M.P.H., “Since the onset of the one-child policy, there has been a steady increase in the reported sex ratio, from 1.06 in 1979, to 1.11 in 1988, to 1.17 in 2001”. Men outnumbers women means that some of them definitely could not have marriage. Those who could not have marriage are always men who have no wealth and social status. Mental health problems may occur among these unmarried men and society would be unstable.
Some people would argue that family planning policy should not be abandoned because our earth is suffering from resources shortage and severe environmental problems. However, resources and environmental problems are solvable and the key element lies in the wisdom of people. China has once suffered from food shortage. However, a scientist in China named Longping Yuan has worked out an approach to increase the output of rice and thus relieve the urgent need for food in this country. As for the environmental issues, it is the common responsibility of the world. Decrease of population could never eradicate the problem. What counts more is the improvement of people’s awareness and measures of protecting the environment. Therefore, these should not be excuses to defend the relaxation of the policy. It is the intelligence of human beings that can solve the coming up problems.
In conclusion, the family planning policy in China should be relaxed even abandoned for the benefits of the country. Though it has both advantages and disadvantages, the adverse effects it brings outweigh its benefits. The bad impacts of high birthrate, including pressures caused by resources shortage and environmental pollution, are manageable once we focus on it. However, consequences caused by lack of labor forces, imbalanced sexual ratio and aging population may be far more severe than what we have imagines. They may even need social reform to ease the problems. Therefore, family planning policy in China should be abandoned.
Bibliography
Chen PC, Kols A(1982). Population and Birth Planning in the People's Republic of China. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,Center for Communication Programs,Population Information Program

Therese Hesketh, Ph.D., Li Lu, M.D., and Zhu Wei Xing, M.P.H.(2005). The Effect of China's One-Child Family Policy after 25 Years. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353:1171-1176.


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