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Battle of Princeton--论文代写范文精选

2015-09-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

51due论文代写网精选代写范文:“Battle of Princeton”。这篇文章主要讲述了华盛顿在领导英美自由战争中经历的种种磨难,装备差距,士气低迷,只能转移作战根据地,南迁新泽西等待援兵集会,并开始以迅雷不及掩耳之势袭击英国军队,攻其不备,逐步转向作战优势。

The Battles of Trenton and Princeton In the fall of 1776, Washington and his men were camping out in New York City after the defeat they suffered in Long Island. The soldiers shivered around the campfires night after night without shoes, blankets, or winter uniforms. Washington knew that being surrounded by water left him and his 19,000 troops extremely vulnerable to the British with their naval mobility and larger forces. On November 21, 1776 Washington moved his troops south joining the troops from Fort Lee. He then continued the journey into Newark, New Jersey and waited there for a militia to rally, but few showed up. The next leg of this journey would take them to New Brunswick, leaving on the 28th, just as the British were arriving in Newark. Then on December 1st, the British forces moved to New Brunswick and Washington repositioned his men to Princeton. On their way to Princeton, Washington had his men destroy all bridges and cut down trees behind them to delay the British who were in pursuit of the American army.

Once they had reached Princeton, the Americans fell back to Trenton along the Delaware River, which is the border with Pennsylvania. Then on December 2nd, two thousand Pennsylvania militiamen joined Washington at Trenton. Most men decided to stay home to protect their families from the enemy and any valuable possessions from the British and Hessians. The British and Hessians at this time were destroying Jersey homes, farms and possessions as they moved through the state. As Washington moved to Princeton, General Greene was faced with the advancing British and was forced to retreat. Joining Washington, the combined army now moved back to Trenton and then across the river. Washington had every boat that could be found moved to safety across to the Pennsylvania side. Reaching the Delaware on the 8th, Howe positioned himself across the river. After the search for boats up and down the river failed, Howe decided to stop for the winter. The American army was virtually helpless at this point. The 2,400 men were worn out, discouraged, under trained, poorly equipped, and outnumbered. On the other hand, leader of the British and Hessians, General Howe located his troops across the state. He set up major commands at Trenton, Burlington, Princeton, Perth Amboy and New Brunswick. The Hessians, who had to bear the impact of the assault on Fort Washington in New York, had the honor of being to the front in Trenton and Burlington. Howe recognized that his men were too spread out, but the American army was in such poor shape, and so demoralized, they were not considered a threat. The British forces had crossed the state almost unopposed. 

Most of the people were not in full support of the rebellion, which made it that much easier for the British. The Americans fight to freedom seemed to be diminishing and Washington began to wonder if he would have to submit to the British. Still everything was not going in favor for the British. The New Jersey men, decided not to join Washington on his quest did not appreciate the British and Hessians troops destroying their land. This angered many of the American colonists. Ambushes of British patrols had become regular event. The people of Morris County decided to not let this slide and instead formed several militia units with some Continental troops, and more troops that were around Paramus in the Northeast. The situation was beginning to feel desperate at the American camp. On December 22nd, 1776, Washington had 4,707 men ready to battle. Washington had a staff meeting and decided to attack. The plan he proposed was very involved and needed to be have executed perfectly. He was aware that the Hessians in Trenton were in a vulnerable position because it was known that they would be up all night celebrating Christmas on the night of December 25th. Washington decided on a predawn attack on the 26th, while the troops and officers were tired and sluggish. Washington and his men ferried across the river at 3 A.M. Two of the other ferries that departed never made it across due to the harsh winter storm, leaving Washington with only 2400 men, their horses and 18 cannon across the icy river. Washington's troops did not get across until 4 am, well behind schedule for a predawn attack. They marched nine miles south to Trenton in two columns, one column lead by General John Sullivan and the other lead by General Nathanael Greene with Washington in control. 

 To the advantage of the Americans, that night the Hessian Major Dechow decided not to sent out the usual early morning patrol. This would allow the Americans to approach undetected. The Americans moved quickly with both columns intruding in on the small town of Trenton. The Hessians were caught completely by surprise and unprepared. The Hessian officers tried to rally and form their troops, but the Americans moved too quickly for them. Washington ordered his men to block all routes in or out of the town. They stationed their cannons on higher ground to control the two main streets of the town. The Hessians, completely confused and unsettled, were not able to communicate and therefore could not establish formations to respond to the attack. The Hessians attempted to fire back with the use of their cannons, but they were captured before they were able to do so. The Americans moved quickly and forcefully, taking full control of the battle. Everywhere the Hessians moved they were there. When the fighting ceased after about 45 minutes, Washington took 918 prisoners, 1,200 small arms, and many supplies. The Hessians suffered around 25 or 30 deaths while the Americans had only a handful wounded. The Hessians tried to escape to Princeton, buy they were blocked off and captured on every attempt. Now it seemed as if the tides had totally turned. Washington and his men were now the aggressors in war. They managed to get the British forces to retreat from the Delaware River. There is where the British would camp out for a few days trying to recover from the defeat before making their next move. 

 On the night of January 3, 1777 Washington executed another brilliant plan. He had ordered a few men to keep the campfires burning and to make noises so that it would appear as if the Americans were resting still in Trenton. However, at this time the rest of the army is moving behind the British forces by heading toward Princeton. From here they would attack the British forces from the rear. Washington marched silently to Princeton. They were whispering orders and took back roads in order to have a surprise attack. Then on January 3, 1777 Washington approached and destroyed General Charles Cornwallis’ rear guard. Washington then leads them towards the British and positions them about 30 yards from the British lines when he orders his me to fire. Both sides fire at each other. Washington ordered his men to charge and the British troops retreated. When the battle ended, over 40 British men were either killed or wounded at Princeton and over 300 were taken prisoners. Washington, who had about 45 killed and wounded at Princeton. Washington had now driven the British from most of New Jersey, in what we now as “The Ten Crucial Days” from December 25th to January 3rd. On the 4th, Washington decided his men had now had enough. He moved his men north where they arrived in Pluckemin. The Watchung Mountains, to the east, protected them. With the Morristown units behind him now, Washington was finally safe. He then led his army to the winter quarters at Morristown. 

Now that the fighting was over and the Americans had a few victories under their belts they felt that they had a chance to win the war. Everyone’s confidence was improved, and the people felt that they could face any enemy. The battles at Trenton and Princeton also raised support for the government and army again. Another benefit was that, due to America’s war effort, the French government sent many supplies the states. Aside from the physical benefits, such as supplies, what these battles did for the American people could not have been bought or purchased. Only with hard work and determination were American people able to say that they were proud and confident. Without this remarkable turnaround the American army might never survived. With these victories the American army was able to hold together and fight for they freedom they deserved.-M

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