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美国论文代写:Apple's problems and challenges

2017-05-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Report范文

本文是一篇优秀的Report范文- Apple's problems and challenges,供大家赏析学习,这篇论文讨论了苹果公司的问题和挑战。毫无疑问,史蒂夫·乔布斯对苹果公司来说至关重要,所以他的逝世给苹果公司带来了许多问题和挑战。比如说新的CEO能否继续带领大家保持目前的发展,能否继续像乔布斯一样具有创造性,创造出与Iphone一样有用的产品,以及Ipad

Apple,Steve Jobs,美国论文代写,essay代写,澳洲代写


Since founder and CEO Steve Jobs had been of critical importance to Apple, its death in 2011 left many questions and challenges ahead for Apple to solve. Already one of the biggest and well-performing firms in the industry globally, how can Apple maintain its current level or even progress further without its key personnel Steve Jobs is surely a challenge.

Problems identified

The first problem is about corporate governance: whether the public or internal personnel are willing to follow Tim Cooks, or will they only be loyal to Jobs? For the public, will there be mass panic and uncertainty after the news release and further affect the stock price? For the internal employees, although that it was long known that Steve had been fighting with cancer for years and that Cooks had led Apple temporarily before, are people of significant position in Apple more loyal to Steve or Cooks? The second problem is whether Apple could maintain its high level of product innovation and continue to be the front-runner in its industry without Jobs. As the case described, even though R&D cost have been only a small portion of revenue for Apple, its success depended highly on creative and innovative products that the public has never seen before, such as the iPod and the iPad. Will Apple continue to introduce creative yet useful products after the genius Jobs is gone? After all, the quality for products is a main driver for revenue generation. The last biggest problem is that Jobs’ death created opportunities for Apple’s competitors to catch up or even surpass them in times of turmoil and uncertainty. While Apple is still spending time to wrap up Jobs’ left over problems, its competitors might be quicker in introducing new products and become early entrants in the market, making them easier to capture more market share.

Problems analysed

The first problem I defined is of high importance because as stated in Chapter 2 of the textbook “Strategic Leadership”, leadership is what forms strategic intent and mission of a firm, which further influences successful strategic actions. Only when the right combination of formulation of strategies and implementation of strategies is met can a firm yield above-average returns. However, without Jobs, every step in the model above could go wrong if the employees are not loyal to Cooks, or the new managerial leaders are not capable of running the company. Effective strategic leadership is also essential for determining strategic direction, exploiting and maintain core competencies, developing human capital, sustaining an effective organizational culture, emphasizing ethical practices, and establishing balanced organizational controls. This problem also applies to Chapter 11 in the textbook, corporate governance. Internally, ownership concentration, board of directors can have conflicts of interest and executive compensation can be frustrating if no consensus is reached. Agency problems is prevalent in firms, and it may also arise with Apple if the principle and the agent have different goals or when shareholders lack direct control of large publicly traded corporation. If the new strategies proposed by the leader does not satisfy the customers that much, then the problem expands from internal to external. The public lose confidence in such a prestigious brand and will sell their stockholdings, which will further decrease the firm value.

The second problem is that since innovation is of high importance for Apple, will the new leaders continue to be as creative as Jobs and create products that are just as useful as the iPhone, and the iPad? After all, creativity is not a characteristic that everyone exhibits, and predicting the popularity of a product amongst global clients is not an easy task. One needs the vision that Jobs possesses. One of the biggest core competencies for Appleis its innovative products. This is more related to capabilities rather than resources in the model from the textbook, and this certain capability is highly related to human resource. This like of capability belongs to the rare capabilities category because it is not easy to find another person as talented and as fit for this position as Jobs. So according to the model in Chapter 11, they need to increase compensation for those rare talents.

The third problem is consistent with the discussion in Chapter 3 and 11 in the textbook. According to the model, Apple will be challenged by threat of new entrants, power of suppliers, power of buyers, product substitutes, and intensity of rivalry. Suppliers or buyers could refuse to buy or sell products to or from Apple if they are not satisfied with new management. Apple’s biggest competitors, IBM, Samsung, Microsoft, etc. could see this as an excellent opportunity in introducing new products when there is still uncertainty left in Apple. If they introduce substitutes of the iPhone, iPad, etc. at this time earlier than Apple, and if customers are unwilling to change to other Apple’s equivalent products later on, then market shares could be lost. Examples of problems that Apple might need to resolve when its competitors surpass it include agency cost problems according to Chapter 11. Government costs may increase because it is more difficult for new entrants in managerial positions in the firm to monitor actions inside the firm.


To solve the first problem, I propose that the firm enhances corporate governance and make sure that management follows Jobs’ view in running the firm to prevent uncertainties. To solve the agency problem, ownership and control needs to be separated for divergent interest to arise. Product diversification can also solve this problem according to Chapter 11. To be specific, the firm can temporarily stop trading on the trading floor just in case of necessary stock fluctuations and creating arbitrage opportunities from those who monitors the company or has insider information. In terms of rules and regulations, the firm should make sure that everything goes on the same as when Jobs was there in the short term and make more rules as Apple adapts to the market in the long term. Maintaining stability in everyone’s heart is important. According to Chapter 11, Apple is already on the list for “Worst boards” in 2002, so Apple should take this problem seriously and renovate with the chance of a new CEO.

The second problem will probably be the hardest to solve. First, Apple should continue to develop the products that were half-finished and try to introduce them to the public as soon as possible to avoid possible competitor’s entrance. Those products were still designed and reviewed by Jobs, so they should still possess all the characteristics of their old products and meet the qualities and standards set by Jobs. In the long term, management should survey the public to see what they need the most and produce products that cater to their needs. The R&D team should pay attention to the cost they spend as a percentage of revenue. Leadership should further encourage innovativeness in the firm since that is not something controllable by rules and regulations. New talents could be imported to the firm when necessary. Most important strategy of all, Apple should use all their might to maintain and enhance product quality. Even though others might not be as innovative as Jobs, at least by careful regulations, everyone should be able to ensure product quality. In reality, four years after Jobs’ death, even though Cooks optimized the supply chain of Apple’s and increased its profit margin by decreasing costs, the public did not see as much creative products as when Jobs was there. The newer models of the iPhone saw little practical and significant changes and the new product Apple Watch, after its long-anticipated emergence, did not receive as much accolades as expected.

To solve the third problem is not easy because it not only involves maintaining stability in the short term, but also requires Apple to quickly catch up. To be specific, Apple, in the short term, can utilize the feelings that people have toward Jobs and introduce related products. For example, when Apple introduced the iPhone 4s when everyone is expecting an iPhone 5, they can say that they are only introducing an iPhone for Steve. Marketing strategies such as this one will allow the people to commemorate Jobs, and so they will be willing to pay since that will probably the last tribute they can pay to Jobs. In the long term, Apple will need to continue to be a forerunner in producing innovative products to maintain its current level and market share. One way that Apple can grow is, according to the Corporate Governance chapter in the textbook, to purchase company that is underperforming relative to industry rivals in order to improve the firm’s strategic competitiveness. International corporate governance is also related here because Apple is an international firm and in places such as Korea or China where Samsung phones also account for a significant amount of market share, threating Apple’s business, effective international corporate governance needs to be further emphasized.


In conclusion, even though the loss of Steve Jobs is a challenging situation, Apple could still rise up and continue to lead the industry for if it fully utilizes the brand name that Jobs has already created, continue to produce innovatively and creatively, and maintains the product quality level that Jobs had reached.


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