Comparison of international relations during the cold war--英文论文Report代写范文
2016-10-18 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文
留学生英文论文Report代写范文:“Comparison of international relations during the cold war”，这篇论文主要描述的是在过去的数十年间国际关系发生了不同程度上的变化，如何对国际关系来进行界定成为了学者们热议的话题，本文以冷战时期期间与冷战后的国际关系为例，分析冷战时期的两极格局对各国间的政治关系都带来了哪些影响。
The past few decades has witnessed the significant change happen in the relationship among different nations in the world. A lot of theories have developed to explain to the complex and intangible phenomenon. There is a hot topic on defining the nature of international relationship. This essay aims to elaborate the similarities and differences of international relations during the Cold war and that of the post-Cold War periods by applying some famous theories. This research essay will first talk about the significant differences of both periods. Following this, it will discuss the similarities. At last a conclusion will be drawn to sum up this essay.
With regards to the international relation difference of these two period, one of the most obvious differences is the missing of “Bipolar” pattern, “Only super Power and Multi-great Power” becomes our international political pattern. Realists think that human kind is not inherently benevolent but rather self-centred and competitive. This perspective, which is shared by theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, views human nature as egocentric (not necessarily selfish) and with conflicts unless there are conditions under which humans may coexist (Buzan and Little, 2000).
After the end of the world war two, European nations suffered a great lost in basic economic infrastructures and great casualty, it is very difficult for them to recover economic strength before the world war two. America, on the contrary, made a lot of benefit out of the war and emerged as a new great power in the world stage. Its influence in the world soon grew stronger and stronger, such as economic, politics, military, technology and ideology. It secured one of the superpower positions at that time. The other superpower is Soviet Union, whose expansion poses a great challenge to the US. The Soviet Union used to be considering one of the most stable political countries in the world in the 1970's and 1980's (Lynch, 1989). Its international influence seemed getting greater and greater. It was, for example, securing political client states in Africa. Both superpowers fought against each other in terms of ideology, politics, military, and economics. Both also relatively formed blocs on their own, such as, Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances. The intense relationship between two countries also put the world’s peace under a great risk (Pirages, 1999).The dissolution of the Soviet Union announced the end of the cold war and the intense international situation was instantly relieved. America remained as the only superpower in the world. Thus, the world becomes a unipolar world, while the others hold the suspicious attitude towards such kind of opinion. They believed that the world has become a multipolar world as a result of the increasing independencies and complicated world market. Some new great powers such china, India, European Union become more and more influential and in the world because of their stronger technology, large market and their important role in international affair. In instance, China used to suffer a lot in its economics during the Cultural Revolution war happened in inside the country. With the implementation of the reform and open-up policy, China’s economic strength grows more and more powerful. As a result, its total value of gross domestic product has surpassed Japan and become second to that of the US.
Another difference of the international relations in these two periods is the different potential threat to the world security environment. According to the realist theory, the state emphasizes an interest in accumulating power to ensure security in an anarchic world. Power is a concept primarily thought of in terms of material resources necessary to induce harm or coerce other states (to fight and win wars). The use of power places an emphasis on coercive tactics being acceptable to either accomplish something in the national interest or avoid something inimical to the national interest. During the cold war, the world security has been greatly threatened by the rival between two superpowers in the aspects of military, ideology, politics and economics. And the Cuban missile crisis is the climax of their confliction. However, new threats, such as the 9/11, American unilateralism and hegemonism come out after the cold war and in some ways change the international relation. The 9/11 in 2001 has fundamentally changed the international system due to the ideological, political and cultural clashes. The question of security has become more and more serious in our life, international law have been made by United Nation‘s Security Council and NATO to fight against it. "Idealism" focuses on human rights as the basis of the legitimacy of international law. Terrorism, on the one hand, serves to separate the relations among the countries, after the 9/11 attack, America launched two wars to eliminate the source of terrorism in two countries-Iraq and Afghanistan. On the other hand, terrorism offers a new opportunity for countries to facilitate the international relations, for example, many countries make a cooperative effort to protect collective security from being threatening. And this will significantly change the course of the international relation. Unilateralism is also another factor in determining the international relations. After the cold war, America insists its unilateralism and the US policy is to great extent influenced by it. One of the most typical cases is US’s invasion to Iraq. Those who are against the war assert that the war is a one-sided action of America because it never gained support and permission from the United Nation and NATO (Behnke, 2013).
There is no doubt that America is still the most influential superpower in the world, according to the realism (Morganthau, 1978), state are power-seeking and self-interested, it is the US’ dream to become the a the only superpower in the world, but its economics strength and soft power decreased after the cold world, which also change the international system significantly compared to that during the cold war. America and Soviet Union used to influence the rest of the world in all aspects of economic, culture, politics etc. America exerted a great effect in the western European countries, while the soviet had a great impact on the eastern European countries, for example, the Marshall plan, which was a huge American program to rebuild Western Europe after world war two using huge gifts of American money. It greatly improved relations between Europe and the US making Western Europe more or less clients of the US. It greatly worsened US Soviet relations because it could not apply to Eastern Europe that the Soviets held prisoner and the Soviets could in no way match the huge American wealth to rebuild the East European countries they kept occupied. However, the US economic power gradually deceases, especially after the Iraq war, which has greatly collapsed its economy. It is estimated that the total direct spending on Iraq of the Department of Defence is at least $757.8 billion and the complementary costs at home, such as interest paid on the funds borrowed to finance the wars and a potential nearly $1 trillion in extra spending to care for veterans returning from combat through 2050 (Walker, 2013). As a result, its domain status in the world has been challenged. The dollar devaluation is one of the symbols of the US’ decreasing influence in the world.
In the post-war era, globalisation, understand as “an intensification of cross-border interactions and interdependence between countries” no doubt, has a great impact on the international relation. According to Marxist and Neo-Marxist international relations theories, the economic concerns transcend others; allowing for the elevation of class as the focus of study. Marxists view the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accumulation (Barrow, 2002). It is no doubt that globalization has brought a great vitality to the world economics. By opening of the cross national border result in the interdependence among countries all over the world, and the implementation of free-trade also to a great extent promote world economic boom. The globalisation offers more opportunities to the multinational corporations to build up their own branch or factories in other countries where the conditions for the company are considered better than their own countries. However, the competition between countries becomes more intense than that during the cold war. Furthermore, free-trade open a new platform for trading which every state could trade freely and with equal opportunities with any other state. However, every coin has two sides. Globalization may have a negative effect in the international relations. The huge gap of societies and income is becoming bigger and bigger, especially in the economic gap between North and South countries.In terms of the similarity of the international relation in both eras, the conflict of the interests exists among the great power in these two times. During the cold war, the conflict between these two ideologies came about. Capitalism proposes the personal freedom while communism emphasize on centralized government control. During the Cold War, each ideology felt the other was trying to dominate the world. Therefore, each ideology felt that its existence was threatened. Thus the intense conflict between the two happened. After the cold war, new conflict of interest occurs among the great powers, such as the conflict of interest in the mid-east area among America, UK and France.
In conclusion, the difference of the international relation in during and past war era are due to the factors such as, culture, ideology, economics, politics and military strength of different countries. The international relationship during the cold war to a great extent is determined by the ideology, political conflict of superpowers. While the international relationship after it tends to be affected by economics and technology moreover, similarity also has been identified, such as the conflict of interest among the great powers. In other word, the international relationship today is still intense in some area of the world, such as the North Korea nuclear weapon threat.