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Air Pollution in Jakarta

2015-06-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Report范文

Thesis statement: Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters and actions to deal with traffic emissions in Jakarta is in an urgent manner for its increasing level of air pollution.

I. Introduction

1.1 The influence of air pollution

Air is very important to people’s life for no one can stop breathing for 20mins or even longer. Human depends on air to survive and develop while the nature also need the air to run its ecological functions. Thus clean air is necessary for human’s healthy environment and for maintaining the biodiversity(Cahyandito, 2001). When there is something appearing in the air that naturally do not exist and cause a worsen air condition and damages to human and other living things, we call that air pollution. It may be some toxic chemical substances or solid particles that can even react with one another. It comes from sources of dust, gases, and smoke, and is generated mainly by human activities but also naturally(Cahyandito, 2001).

Air pollution will cause serious problems and damages both for human and nature. It aggravates respiratory problems and leads to an increase in sickness absenteeism and premature mortality, even interact with the body’s immune system(Deboer, 1998). It may change the air substances and cause climate changes such as greenhouse gases and lead. So a concern for air pollution can not be ignored.

1.2 Introduction to Jakarta

Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, has a dramatic population growth in the 20th century, growing from 29 million at the turn of the century to about 125 million today (Energy information administration,1999) and by 2015 Jakarta is expected to be the fifth largest city in the world with a population of 21.2 million.

As it is the country’s center of government, finance, commerce and education, Jakarta’s industries include textiles, chemicals and electronic devices, and 17% of the nation’s industrial production occurs there (Wri, 2000). But its rapid economic growth has had its costs--vehicles and industry are now a major source of environmental pollution. Thus, like many of the world’s megacities, Jakarta now faces some of the world’s worst urban environmental problems from choking air pollution to contaminated and insufficient water supplies (Wri, 2000).

1.3 Air quality in Jakarta

1.3.1 Air pollution status

Because of Jakarta’s rapid population growth and economic development, the burning of fuels and the increasing numbers of cars and factories, the air environment status is now going down. It greatly affect the health of people and the damage to constructions and economic growth of Jakarta. Vehicle emissions are the most important source of pollutants (44% of particulates, 89% of hydrocarbons, 73% of nitrogen oxides, and 100% of lead) (Cahyandito, 2001)

1.3.2 Main pollutants of air pollution

The main pollutants of Jakarta’s air pollution include:

Carbon monoxide, which is let off by vehicles’ petrol engines and industrial combustion; sulfur dioxide, which is produced when coal and oil are burnt or when mineral are “roasted” to remove the sulfur; nitrogen dioxide, which are emitted by both motor vehicles and stationary combustion sources; and nitric oxide, which originates in chemical and nitration industries and occurs with the photochemical oxidant process(Who, 1972); particles in the air come from a number of sources, including motor vehicles, industrial processes and wood burning. Secondary formation of particles (formation from gaseous emissions) can also contribute significantly to particle levels(Holper and Noonan, 2000); photochemical smog, which is the combined effects of a number of air pollutants and are worse than individual effects; ozone, formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in sunny condition which are released by motor vehicles and industry(Cahyandito, 2001).

The point is that, all these pollutants will cause great damages to human health. Jakarta’s air pollution is associated with high level of respiratory disease (Cahyandito, 2001). Research has shown that the air pollution can cause higher level of respiratory illness on children and adults while increase a family’s economic costs(Zulkarnain, 2003).

II. Actions for Jakarta to deal with air pollution

2.1 For government

Jakarta may use part of BAPEDAL(Environmental Impact Management Agency of Indonesia) and PCI(Pollution Control Implementation) Project to show the extent of the vehicles, industry and other human activities’ contribution to air pollution, which can draw people’s attention to air pollution, and help to establish control programs aimed at reducing pollution problems (Holper 2000). Meanwhile, making some policies and law for industries to restrict their pollutants’ emission and encouraging a use of less toxic fuel and private cars but taking public transportation to reduce energy uses are all very efficient measures. For example ,the “Blue Sky Program” is beneficial for the city(BAPEDAL, 1999).

2.2 For people

Personally, a less use of fossil fuels will do the air many good since air pollution is caused by emission of traffic and industry. A green lifestyle is encouraged for people to live more environmental-friendly and health. People should concern more about the way they life and care much about the earth by doing many small things in normal life, such as reuse and recycle of materials, more use of public transportation and so on. Another program is that the “1 Million Trees Campaign” which is aimed at planting more trees,  shrubs or grass to help absorb the air pollutants and is proved to be crowned with success(Kompas, 1997; Cahyandito, 2001).

2.3 Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters

Among air pollutants emitted by mobile sources in Jakarta are tetra ethyl lead (Pb) and carbon monoxide, both of which have potential adverse systemic health effects. These effects can be monitored practically and specifically. Therefore they can be utilised as indicators of the public health effects of air pollution in urban areas(Cahyandito, 2001). Besides these two indicators, other pollutant in the air can also be monitored as a indicator for pollution. Through that way, figures will show to people how serious the air condition is and motivate people to take part in protecting the air environment and concern more about the nature.

III. Conclusion

Air pollution is a big problem in Jakarta province. The pollution is due to increased human activities, population growth, the increasing number of industries, and transportation. To reach a balance between economic growth  and the health of people, there is much to do to lower the effects of air pollution on the society. Besides government’s policies and encouragement to more green progress and people’s concern about the air environment, monitoring of ambient air quality parameters can also do good jobs on that. Further research needs to be done to get more results and measures for relief the undesired outcome of air pollution in Jakarta.

IV. reference

CAHYANDITO, M. Air pollution in Jakarta, Indonesia. Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany, 2001.

DEBOER M. Facing the Air Pollution Agenda for the 21st Century. In: SCHNEIDER, T. Air Pollution in the 21st Century: Priority Issues and Policy, Elsevier Science B. V., The Netherlands, p. 4-5.1998

EBERLEIN, B. Indonesien: Reiseführer mit Landeskunde, Verlag Haupka & Co., Bad Soden, Germany, 1996.

ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (EIA). Indonesia: Environmental Issues, US-Energy Information Administration, 1996.

HOLPER, P. Probing Jakarta’s Hazy Days, Green and Gold Magazine.1996

HOLPER, P. and J. NOONAN. Urban and Regional Air Pollution, Atmosphere, Newsletter of CSIRO Atmospheric Research, 2000

KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper). Gerakan Sejuta Taman (Million Parks Campaign) – Upaya Mengikis Lingkungan Kumuh, April 27, 1997.

KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper). Taman, Kali Bersih dan Udara Segar, June 22, 1997.

KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper).  Beberapa Jenis Tanaman Cocok untuk Kurangi Polusi Udara, July 14, 1997.

ZULKARNAIN Duki, SIGIT Sudarmadi, et al. Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in Indonesia and its economic cost. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 58(No.3), 2003


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