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Prompt for Enterprising Nonprofits

2020-05-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

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西方经济学的创始人亚当·斯密认为,人的动机是根植于经济动机之上的,人们应该为获得最佳的经济利益而努力。这是众所周知的经济人在国家财富中成长的假设。这样,人们就最大化了自己的私利,从而最大化了整个社会的利益。正如在《人民、偏好和社会》一书中所说的那样:经济学不是关于特定的个人做什么,而是经济学家需要知道个人的行为,以便解释总数、平均值和关系。从那时起,主流的经济理论建立在经济人假设的基础上经常把货币利己主义看作是对人性的描述,或者是在竞争激烈的市场中生存的必要条件。

Adam Smith, Originator of Western economics believed that human motivation is rooted in economic incentives, people should strive for the best economic interests.(Adam Smith, 1776) This is the well-known Hypothesis of Economic Man raised in The Wealth of Nations. In this way, people maximize his own self-interest, thus maximizing the whole society’s interest. Just like it was said in the People, Preferences, and Society: Economics is not about what particular individuals do, but economists need to know how individuals behave in order to explain totals, averages, and relationships.( Bowles, Edwards, and Roosevelt, 2005) Since then, Mainstream economic theories are built on the assumption of Economic Man and frequently think of monetary self-interest as either a description of human nature, or as a necessity for survival in a competitive market place.

 

With the development of social economic and the increase of accessibility of all kinds of resources, more and more individuals choose to start a business or other organization to make profit to attain financial independence. But entrepreneurship consists of different types  of entrepreneurships which have different investment source and goals: Conventional entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs. traditional entrepreneurship generally reviews their performance by calculating profit and annual return, but social entrepreneurship also take a positive effect on the society well-being into consideration. Social entrepreneurship generally makes an attempt to further accomplish social, environmental, or cultural goals and is often associated with the voluntary sector. (Thompson, J.L, 2002) What is social entrepreneurship? How about a group of people are they? To some extent, we can simply put social entrepreneurship into none-profit organization. David Bernstein, author of How to Change the World, give definition of social entrepreneurship: " to explore new opportunities, refused to give up, to build an ideal world." Social entrepreneurship is to use commercial view or  methods to solve social problems, to use business rules to solve the problems can’t solved by the society itself. it is not only for the purpose of profit but a social non-profit organization of enthusiast, such as Joel relief hotline created fir India street children; 24 hours care network for South Africa's AIDS people, solar power system for Brazil's poor nomads Rosa.

 

  The development of non-profit organizations is the inevitable trend of modern social development. The main reason for the rise of non-profit organization lie in the first and second department functions and their lack of energy in volunteer sector. In the wake of the development of market economy, market mechanism has been linked to  every corner of social life, but the social problem is beyond the multiplicity and complexity of the market mechanism. It is a difficult problem for market mechanism to solve. At the same time, the market mechanism itself aroused the extreme disparity between the rich and the poor, leading to the new social problems, such as social instability. For urban and rural poverty relief, caring people with disabilities and the elderly in the community, etc., the pure market mechanism is also powerless. Moreover, the government can’t do everything with limited resources. counting alone on government function will not solve the social problems. Therefore, the emergence of non-profit organizations, are happen to  make up for the first and second sector on solving some important and influential social problems, which are of vital importance for people.


There are two things to make social entrepreneurs to respect: first is the emphasis on the ideal reality: when Mr. Yens rebelled against the traditional theory of Banks, to promote small loans to poor people, he did not just support to help the poor themselves, but made a practical exploration for a better society; the second is the emphasis on nonprofit. Social enterprises are not the same as traditional commercial enterprises, but also different from NPO (non - profit organization), it emphasizes on achieving broader social value. And I think these two things are also the main driving forces for non-profit enterprises.

To review the development process of ENRON, is an old saying "the higher you climb, the harder you may fall". ENRON was founded in 1985, a gas company in Houston, Intel, the product of the merger between companies. In the 1990 s, ENRON seized the chance that  US government opened energy market, regulating the chance of lifting, it was time to first launch energy commodities and trading service, make the energy industry to electric power, oil, natural gas and other energy products and derivative products for a variety of spot and futures trading. Under the impetus of the ENRON corporation, a complex as securities trading market of huge energy trading market gradually formed, the ENRON corporation plays an important role in this market. In 2000, ENRON corporation accounted for about a quarter of the  trading amount of the total national energy.

 

Unfortunately, in the rapid expansion of business and a large number of investment has brought increased debt, ENRON did not set out to adjust the expansion plans and digest the debt, only to choose a seemingly clever shortcut: USES a "cover up" to reflect on their balance sheet debt in less than real. In other words, ENRON doesn't try to reduce debt, part of the debt burden, but is less debt. At the same time, ENRON was for those with limited partnership between trading limited partnership or will bring profits, all count. In order to maintain its growth story, ENRON walk more far, until the ally McNeal. , according to a report to the CSRC.

A social enterprise is an organization which uses commercial strategies to make great improvements in human benefits and environmental well-being, rather than making profits for investors. Many commercial enterprises would think that they also have social aims, but driving force behind  these objectives is motivated by the awareness that such social aims will ultimately make their business more financially valuable. While social enterprises are different  in this aspect, on the contrary, they do not aim to make any benefit for their external stakeholders, except that they believe that doing so will in return further their ability to accomplish their social and environmental goals, which means, the ultimate goal is different , and the way they experienced is different.

 

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