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Eastern Asia Tea Culture

2019-05-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Eastern Asia Tea Culture,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了东亚茶文化。最早发现茶的是亚洲人,在历史的发展过程中,他们逐渐创造了茶文化。中国有茶歌、茶舞、茶戏、茶画、茶文学等艺术形式。而在日本,茶道是指在接待和社交中举行的一种特殊的仪式。日本的饮茶方式不仅要求环境安静优雅,而且对煮茶、泡茶、品茶的程序也有严格的规定,他们把喝茶作为培养道德品质、提高文化意识和与他人交流的重要方式。在韩国,有一种传统的茶道形式,在韩国人中间流传了一千多年。通过仪式,韩国人倾向于自然和轻松地享受茶。然而,对于西方国家的人来说,很难理解茶在丰富精神生活中的作用,他们往往把东亚茶文化看作是一个神秘的问题。

Eastern Asia Tea Culture,东亚茶文化,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Introduction

It was the Asian who firstly discovered tea, and they gradually created tea culture during the historical development. In China, there are song of tea, dance of tea, drama of tea, painting of tea, tea literature and other artistic forms. In Japan, the Way of Tea refers to a special ceremony in reception and social intercourse. Japanese Way of Tea not only requires quiet and elegant environment, but also has strict rules about the procedure of cooking tea, making tea and tasting tea. The Japanese treat Way of Tea as an important way to cultivate their moral character, improve cultural awareness and communicate with others. In South Korea, there is a traditional form of tea ceremony which has been kept among Korean people for more than one thousand years. Through the ceremony, the Korean people tend to achieve naturalness and ease of enjoying tea.

However, for people in western countries, it is difficult to understand the function of tea in enriching the spiritual life, and they tend to consider Eastern Asia tea culture as ‘mysterious issue’. For example, in an article called “Western Tea Culture & Tea Hermits”, James (2017) points out that, many western tea drinkers are drinking alone. Though many of them may enjoy a cup of tea from time to time, but most of the time they tend to look past the true knowledge behind the cup of tea. In order to really get to know the eastern Asia tea culture, there are many questions that must be answered, such as: Why is the tea set designed this way? What concept did they follow when designing the tea house? The Eastern Asia tea culture is known for their uniqueness, it is affected by many factors such as location and history. Generally, the paper seeks to reveal the concepts and philosophy behind the Eastern Asia tea culture. It firstly introduces how the western countries such as the U.S. consider the Eastern Asia tea culture, and presents Chinese tea sets in American museum. After that, it analyzes the major changes and development in the history of Eastern Asia tea culture, and gives specific examples of tea sets and tea houses in order to demonstrate eastern philosophies and concepts. At the same time, it analyzes the artwork from different regions which reflect different tea cultures. Finally, it draws out some more general conclusions.

Attitudes of Western Countries towards Eastern Asia Tea Culture

In Tea and China’s Rise, Gary Sigley (2015) points out that, tea has played an important part in Chinese history and in China’s relations with foreign cultures near and far, and it is necessary to demonstrate how tea reinforces a sense of unique Chinese identity and national character, as China has become the world’s largest economy and reshape the global order. Sigley (2015) argues that, the British people only aimed to create a standardize tea which common people are able to buy it and easy to buy it; however, Chinese people especially for the Chinese government seek to use tea to establish Chinese culture which could help bind the people and nation through the transition. In other words, tea culture is treated as an artefact of government which could be guided and developed and put to specific governmental and social uses (Sigley, 2015).

In addition to journals, people could also find Chinese tea sets in American museums. I had been to Metropolitan Museum of Art once and found the Chinese tea sets as follow.

For most American people, at least the ones I know, they cannot understand why Chinese people take great chains to design the shape and appearance of tea set. They even take coffee as example, and they think there are many differences between Chinese tea culture and American coffee culture. In this way, it is necessary to present the history of Eastern Asia tea culture and the tea culture behind the tea sets and tea houses.

Historical Development of Eastern Tea Culture

There is no doubt that China is the original tea-growing area, and China is also the first country to grow, produce and drink tea (Wang, 2011). Based on the record in Holy Farmer’s Herbal Classic, China discovered and began to use tea almost 3000 years ago (Wang, 2011). Tang Dynasty was a vigorous period in the feudalistic society of China. During the time, China put an end to the situation of secession and balkanization, achieved national unity, and strengthened ties with mainland, which made it possible for frequent economic and cultural exchange between the south and north. The social condition laid foundation for the further popularization and development of tea culture. After the Six Dynasty, tasting tea had been popular in the south of China. When it comes to Tang Dynasty, tea-drinking custom was quickly expanded to the north and the remote regions in northwestern China where did not grow tea. In the middle and later stage of Tang Dynasty, tea affairs had reached to an unprecedented scale. In The Classic of Tea, Chinese writer Lu Yu pointed out that, the custom of tasting tea started from Holy Farmer, became famous during Lu State, and reached maturity during Tang Dynasty (Wang, 2000). From the emperor to civilians, almost all the people in Tang Dynasty drunk tea. At that time, famous poets, painters, calligraphers and musicians who were active in literary circles not only tasted tea, but also participated in cultivating tea. They recited poems of tea, drew pictures of tea, and wrote book of tea, which became a special and beautiful landscape in Tang Dynasty. What is more, in The Classic of Tea, Lu Yu also introduced the way how people in Tang Dynasty planted tea, picked tea-leaves, chose tea set, duration and degree of cooking tea, used water and tasted tea. In this way, it is easy to find that people in Tang Dynasty had paid attention to the art of tasting. When it comes to Song Dynasty, a breakthrough was made in the procedure and technology of making tea. Dragon Phoenix Tea, produced by pressure molding was very famous at that time. Furthermore, as an old Chinese saying runs, “when we get up in the morning, the first things we should get ready are firewood, rice, edible, oil, salt, soy, vinegar and tea”; drinking tea had been an indispensable goods in people’s daily life (Wang, 2011). In the meanwhile, it was also very popular for people to join in tea competition in Song Dynasty. People tended to compete with each other in the technology of making tea as well as tea quality. In Yuan Dynasty, people preferred not to add shallot, ginger, salt and other flavors, but only used water to cook tea. The simple and pure way of making tea is still used today.

In the beginning of the 9th century, as an advanced carrier of spiritual culture, tea was introduced from China into Japan by Japanese Buddhists. However, different from China in which tea was popular among general people, only the emperors, nobility and superior Buddhists had the access to drink tea because of stiff hierarchies. Drank tea became popular in the Saga era, and “there is a record of ‘tea bowls’ in the stipulations on tributes from Sanage in the Engishiki (Nishimura et al., 2010).” During the period of the Southern Song Dynasty, Japanese Buddhist Eisai came to China and learned Buddhism. He wrote the first book specifically about tea in Japan, How to Stay Healthy by Drinking Tea. He brought tea seed back to Japan and popularized a new way to make tea and drink tea, which enlarged the area of planting tea. When it comes to Ming Dynasty, Japanese tea culture totally broke the tether of Chinese tea culture, and Japanese people began to seek the etiquette standards of tea, pay attention to the design of tea house as well as the placement of tea set. Current procedure of serving tea in Japan was formed at that time.

In Korea, there are a large number of references arguing that, it is the emissaries who were sent to China brought back tea from the end of the Silla dynasty to the beginning of the Koryo (Nishimura et al., 2010). Moreover, the way of drinking tea during the Silla dynasty also learned from Tang dynasty, which was similar to cook soup. It not only enriched people’s knowledge on the way of drinking tea, but also revealed a peaceful and sincere beauty. In the meanwhile, as another way of tea, Five Elements Tea Ceremony of the Korea times is similar to Japanese tea culture in forms, which mainly involves making tea and tasting tea. However, Five Elements Tea Ceremony is a ceremony of national level, which is filled with poetic charms and folk customs (Lv & Shen, 2012). In the history of ancient Korea times, tea was always the necessary oblation.

In addition to Asian areas, Chinese tea culture was also spread to western countries. The discovery of new travel routes made the economic and cultural interaction between Asia and Europe become more and more intense. With the help of strong ability in marine transport, Portugal and Netherland firstly got to Chinese tea, and gradually understood the effect, habitual nature, and way of drinking tea, which laid a basis on the spread of Chinese tea culture. During the Ming dynasty, Portuguese began to trade with Chinese people in tea (Hoheneggerm, 2006). They sold tea to other countries through the Dutch. Even though it was the Portuguese who firstly did tea trade, it was mainly because of the Dutch who promoted the large-scale dissemination of tea in Europe especially the Britain. The Portuguese did not put tea trade in an important position, but attached importance to enjoy themselves, especially for the self-consumption among the nobilities in Portugal. In the context, Dutch, the “sea coachman” took advantage of the opportunity and mastered tea trade from the Portuguese. With the help of the Dutch, tea was expanded to the whole Europe. When it comes to the middle of the Qing dynasty, tea trade was changed again. At that time, the British empire rose sharply and Dutch’s maritime supremacy was gradually replaced by the Britain. Furthermore, the British replaced the Dutch and became the first country doing tea business (Hoheneggerm, 2006). Making use of price scissors in tea trade, a large number of tea was imported to the Britain by the British, and made the civilian class also have access to drink tea.

Eastern Tea Culture behind the Tea Set

As an important part of Chinese traditional culture, the development of tea culture also promoted the evolution of tea set. Generally, the change of the material, variety, model and style of tea set is closely associated with the characteristics of the times, folk custom and aesthetic taste. As the carrier of tea culture, no matter a tea set is rough or delicate, it reflects the culture in a specific era. Every tea set records the ups and downs of a dynasty and changes of several generations. The beauty of plainness in Spring and Autumn Period, power and vigor in Han dynasty, brilliant colors in Tang dynasty, calmness in Song dynasty, and elegance in Ming and Qing dynasty make people fully appreciate colorful artistic styles in different historical periods.    

As the famous artwork of Yixing, as well as the symbol of Yixing and Chinese traditional handicraft, the brilliant cultural content hided in Yixing purple sand-fired pot still has the great directive significance for current society (Lo, 1986). The manufacturing skills of Yixing purple sand-fired pot is selected as the first batch of intangible cultural heritage in China, and become the symbol of national culture. In this way, it is meaningful to use Yixing purple sand-fired pot to understand Chinese tea culture.

Yixing Miniature Dragon Fish Teapot was designed by Shao Daheng in Qing dynasty. From the teapot, people could feel the change from fish to dragon. In China, dragon is auspicious sign, and it is one of the traditional culture in China and other Eastern Asian nations. Furthermore, “big splash” in China means that one’s name was put on the published list of successful candidates or promotion and prosperity. In addition to the cultural implication, the craftsmanship is also very dedicated. The whole teapot is filled with the texture of roll cloud and turbulent waves, and the pattern that a carp becomes a dragon, is partly hidden and partly visible. The head of dragon on pot lid is movable, while the tongue of dragon is also able to move freely, and it clearly reflects the superior skill of Chinese designer.

In addition to Yixing Miniature Dragon Fish Teapot, Duo Ball Teapot is another artwork of Shao Daheng. The whole shape of the teapot is a ball, and there are no any decorations. Consequently, it is very simple but generous, and it is the classic representative work of purple sand-fired pot. Without any decorative language but simple shape, it is still possible for creators to express their thoughts and opinions through tea set. Moreover, From Duo Ball Teapot, people could also feel the philosophy of Zen. Zen advocates the philosophy of “empty”, and it is not a simple blank but a kind of transcendence, which requires a survival state at certain level.

Zan’s various opinions on nature come from the views on mind and matter of Buddhism. It believes that, mind is an authentic existence, and it is necessary to regard nature as a kind of false appearance or mindset. The natural view of Zan attaches importance to comprehend. All the languages and words are limited, exterior and dead; and they will become the chains restricting people’s ability in mastering the essence of things. On the other hand, the natural view of Zan also pays attention to the arbitrary combination of natural phenomenon. After the separation from previous environment, natural phenomenon under new environment makes people have new feelings toward it because of subjective cognition. For example, pine tree is a natural issue in natural environment, however, with the help of teapot designers’ creativity, it gets rid of previous environment, combines with purple sand-fired pot and becomes Yixing pine tree stump teapot. In this way, the appearance of teapot refreshes people’s understanding on pine trees and purple sand-fired pot. As a pattern of manifestation of purple sand-fired pot, the body of Yixing pine tree stump teapot seems to be the trunk of pine tree, and the pot lid is embedded. At the same time, the spout and handle of teapot are also shaped in the shape of pine tree. As an excellent art and crafts master in Qing dynasty, his purple sand-fired pot inherited the liberality and elegance of utensils in Ming dynasty, and he also showed his ingenious skills in simulation and realism. In other words, the teapot created by Chen originated from life but surpassed the life greatly.

In addition to Chinese tea set, Japanese tea set and Korean tea set also reflect specific cultural concepts and philosophy. Sen no Rikyu was an important figure in Japna who played a significant role in forming Japanese tea culture and teapot (Handa, 2013). He made doctrine of tea in Japan become more philosophical, lively and aesthetic. He regarded doctrine of tea as a kind of practice of Zen. As for tea set, Rikyu broke the boundaries between recognized famous tea set and ordinary tea set, and eliminated the differences and opposition of issues (Handa, 2013). He advocated to treat everything in an original way, and everything in daily life could be regarded as tea set (Handa, 2013). In this way, as Auguste Rodin argued that, “beauty is found everywhere; our eyes do not show a lack of sense of beauty, but a lack of observation”, Rikyu’s detached attitude made him create many classic tea sets. In order to create an ideal tea set, Rikyu cooperated with potter and created a tea set which firstly got rid of the influence of foreigner tea sets, Raku tea bowls. Similarly, in Korea, the creation of tea set also reflects and indicates the thoughts of creators as well as the whole society (Sonjae, & Kyeong-hae, 2007). Generally, tea set is not only a carrier of tea, but also the carrier of national culture and philosophy.

Eastern Tea Culture behind the Tea House

The design of tea house is closely connected to tea culture. On the one hand, tea culture provides guidance of design philosophy. On the other hand, tea house tends to be filled with the beauty of traditional culture.

Tea house is an important part of Sichuan. In Sichuan, tea house can be seen everywhere. There are high-end teahouses in bustling cities such as Chengdu, simple tea booth in rural routes, tearooms in parks, and tea gardens in universities. What is more, most tea houses in Sichuan are built in places such as parks where people could enjoy secluded and beautiful environment. Take a tea house I had been to last summer as example, it is near the Dujiangyan.

As shown in the figure, the whole environment is very peaceful and unaffected. Chinese traditional esthetic thought of Daoism pays attention to the beauty of essence of things, and the beauty of one’s original nature, rather than exterior artificial beauty. Rather than pursuing exterior decoration, the design of tea house tends to return to the nature and satisfy people’s real needs (Eto, 2015). From the model, color and decoration of the tea house, people could feel the simple, natural and unsophisticated values and characteristics. For example, what customers sit is the chairs made of bamboos. Through bamboos, trees, stones, lakes and natural wind, customers’ body are connected to the nature. People could feel the feeling of stepping on stones, wandering in the gardens, as well as the sound that trees sway quietly in the gentle breeze rusting through the leaves. In this way, human beings, stones, bamboos, trees, and lakes interact on each other and build a whole environment. Generally, the design of the tea house focuses on the inner peace and the spirit of relaxation of customers. As the aesthetic ideology of Zen stresses, human beings shall be as free as the birds and fishes in the nature, and not to be tied down by earthliness (Benn, 2015). In modern society, pressure from various aspects make many people keep sustained levels of energy. With the help of tea house, people have the opportunity to get rid of burden, return to nature in their spare time, and ease their mind. In addition to the site selection, the tradition carving in the building also reflects Chinese traditional culture. Engraving art is a kind of decorative method which is widely used in Chinese traditional architecture. People could find it from the beam column, cornice, handrail and pane of the tea house. The application of engraving presents the simple, elegant, gorgeous and exquisite style, and it adds the finishing touch to the architecture and make people feel the profound meaning of Chinese traditional culture. When it comes to the use of the color, similar as Chinese ancient palace, the application of red, brown, purple and cyan highlights spectacular and splendid architecture. Generally, as the material carrier of Chinese traditional culture, the tea house not only pays attention to the unity and harmony of color composition, but also focuses on the original color and texture of material. In this way, the tea house is very beautiful and not artificial.

What is more, the tea house in Japan also has its specific tea culture. The architectural space designed to be used for tea ceremony is made up of tea rooms and tea gardens. Tea rooms are the place where hosts welcome their guests to taste tea, and tea gardens refer to the aisle before entering tea rooms. Tea gardens are treated as the transition from the outside world to the tea rooms, and they are also the place hosts greet guests (Keane, 2009). The significance of tea gardens is to help the guests to finish the spiritual conversion from busy streets to pure land (Keane, 2009). Under the impact of China’s Zan, tea, landscape painting, as well as Japanese traditional tea culture, Japanese tea gardens are designed to highlight the characteristics of achieving inner peace among the busy environment, and they show special concepts of time and space (Bullen, 2015). When it comes to the site selection of tea rooms, Japanese tea rooms tend to be established in quiet and elegant place such as mountains and lakes because of the pursue in wide visual field, unique scenery, or quite environment. The combination of secluded mountain forest and quiet courtyard constructs natural environment, which accords with the value of Way of Tea. In Japan, the build of tea rooms focuses on simplification, and the texture of material is more important. Japanese tea rooms prefer to choose natural material such as timber pile with rind, log with bark, and bamboos. What is more, as for the layout of tea gardens, common materials are also widely applied. From the fence made of bamboos, garden path paved by green grass and undecorated stone, all the layouts are full of rural feelings. At the same time, the layouts also remind people to respect and preserve nature, and enlighten the inspiration and thought of discovering and feeling the art. Besides, the overall hue of the architecture originates from the material, and there are very few florid colors. In general, grayish green is the dominant hue of the architecture, and the tone is not only the transition from black to white, but also presents the natural balance. It is simple but elegant. Moreover, it is worth emphasizing that the architecture has beauty in form, including the aspects of lines, blocks and colors. The beauty of Japanese architectures tends to get rid of the inflexibility and stagnancy led by imitating objective things in natural world, and lays particular emphasis on abstract sentiment and artistic conception. What is more, architectures such as tea rooms pursue gracious spirit of Zan, and pay attention to simple structure and honest materials to construct the simple style (Lester, 1992). From the pristine environment, the wealth of the mind and strength of inner heart could be extracted. In this way, it can be concluded that the presentation is closely associated with the beauty in form. It presentation is achieved through elaborate and exquisite design technique, and paying particular attention to every detail such as shape, craft and measure. Furthermore, it also deeply considers and explores the cultural connotation it carries. The Japanese tea house pursues the beauty of dissymmetry. There are very few perfectly symmetrical things, and symmetrical things in actual life show artificial trace and tend to be too serious and overcautious. Japanese people’s preference to uneven number is deeply infiltrated into tea houses. No two architectural forms are alike, and there is no neat arrangement or absolute symmetry, but only the beauty created by diversity and variety.

Impact of Time and Region in Tea Set and Tea House

However, the design of tea set and tea house is not changeless, and it will change with the time and regional divergence. Still take Yixing purple sand-fired pot as example, in Ming dynasty, it learned from the characteristics of Ming-style furniture and metal containers at this time. People could find the similarity between the shape of purple sand-fired pot and the appearance and shape of bronze mirror. Furthermore, simple and elegant shape and decorative characteristics of Ming-style furniture also greatly influenced purple sand-fired pot (Benn, 2015). Take a panoramic view of the purple sand-fired pot during this period, it is easy to find that there were various pots, and some followed the nature, some followed the example of previous design, some were simple and structured, and some were decorated with poems and pictures. When it comes to early time in Qing dynasty, bright-colored fashion in oversea market and court influenced the decorative style of purple sand-fired pot. Some designers used copper plate or decal to decorate the pot (Benn, 2015). Even though this type of tea set increased the variety of purple sand-fired pot, it violated the essence of purple clay. Natural and primitive art of purple clay became exquisite and mundane. In the middle time of Qing dynasty, purple sand-fired pot gradually returned to the simple and plain development direction because of the extensive participation of scholars in various ways. When tea sets and tea culture were spread to Japan, the Japanese people created their particular tea culture. On the one hand, Japanese people prefer to use common things in daily life as tea sets. For example, the bowl that Korean peasants used to eat are widely used by Japanese people to taste tea as the coarse tea set accords with the quietness and simplicity of Zan. On the other hand, Japanese designers treat flaw and distorted shape as beauty. Compared to symmetry and balance, Japanese designers believe that, distorted shape is much closer to nature and has the beauty which is superior to mundane affairs (Ohki, 2009). In addition to tea sets, the design of tea houses is also impacted greatly by time and regional divergence. In Ming dynasty, the environment for tasting tea required the beauty of nature and beauty of environment, including the number of people tasted tea and surrounding facilities. Best environment for tasting tea was near river or spring, and people loved to company with the pines, cool breeze and songs of birds. When it comes to Qing dynasty, the environment for tasting tea changed greatly, various tea houses emerged and became the importance places for people’s activities. In addition to drink tea, meet with friends, talk about poems, indulge in high-sounding tirades, listen to storytelling, and people could also eat and gamble in tea houses. In Britain, the design of tea house pays attention to creation of elegant emotional appeal similar to coffee house, and exquisite tea sets and fresh flowers are common in Britain tea houses. What is more, stained glass and work of art are also used to decorate the tea houses. In general, tea sets and tea houses in different time and places tend to be different from each other and reflect different tea culture.

Conclusion

Chinese tea culture is the source of Asian tea culture, and it integrates religion, philosophy, aesthetics, morality and art, which is the combination of art and practice. Chinese tea culture is not only the art of drinking tea, but also the art of life. From Yixing purple sand-fired pot to tea house in Dujiangyan, people could Chinese people’s pursuit in the essence of things. The philosophy of Zan deeply impacts Chinese people’s values and lifestyles. What is more, the doctrine of tea in Korea and Way of Tea in Japan are influenced by Chinese tea culture as well. However, both of them have their specific national characteristics. In general, the Tea culture is an important part of the Eastern Asia Culture. It reflects the lifestyle and values of the people. The history of the development of the Eastern tea culture also represents the development of the Eastern Asia Arts.

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