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The struggle between England and France​

2019-01-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The struggle between England and France,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国和法国的斗争。几百年来英法之间的斗争一直没有停止,其根本原因是两个民族在经济、政治、军事方面的利益之争,双方都想争做欧洲甚至世界的霸主。以上种种原因,加上法国同时维持对陆军和海军军费的庞大支出,又没有像英国那样靠殖民地拓殖带来巨额财富供养军队,这不但不利于资本原始积累,不能为资本主义发展提供必要的资金支持,也法国延缓了法国工业革命的进程,造成法国经济实力长期落后英国。

England and France,英法之争,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

With the acceleration of the world economic integration process, the ocean has increasingly become the focus of attention of all countries. The idea of sea power is rising day by day. Since the opening of the new route, European powers have embarked on the path of colonial expansion and colonial trade. The history of the anglo-french dispute is a hot topic for scholars at home and abroad.

After the "glorious revolution" in 1688, Britain established a constitutional monarchy. The stability of domestic politics created favorable conditions for Britain's maritime expansion and colonial aggression. At that time, France was the most powerful country on the European continent, and it also took steps to compete for overseas interests and carry out colonial aggression. The struggle between Britain and France was not only the struggle for European hegemony, but also the struggle for colonial and sea power. There are many reasons for Britain's victory over France in the end. This paper only analyzes the reasons for Britain's victory over France from three aspects: the political system advantage of Britain, the trading system formed by Britain and the colonies, and Britain's balance of power foreign policy, which is of certain significance for us to understand the development of modern world history.

The glorious revolution in 1688 made Britain a capitalist country with a constitutional monarchy. Since then, there were no major domestic conflicts in the history of Britain, which provided a good political foundation for Britain to focus on expanding its maritime power. "After 1690, Britain engaged in an arms race with France, gaining weight to control the sea and thus defeat the French challenge. But it is important to remember that British people do this through legislation in parliament, not by sea. France was under absolute monarchy until 1789, and its political modernization process was a century later than that of Britain. Under the autocratic monarchy, the preference of the monarch had a great influence on the development of the French navy. The French Kings focused more on continental expansion, and naval development was slowed by lack of support. Moreover, the conflicts between France and the Netherlands, Spain and Germany in the European continent deprived France of its natural Allies against Britain, enabling Britain, which had always maintained its maritime superiority, to concentrate on attacking the French maritime forces and finally consolidated Britain's absolute advantage.

In the 1880s, Britain took the lead in completing the first industrial revolution and became a world economic power. Britain was an island country with underdeveloped agriculture and most agricultural products needed to be imported. At that time, most European countries imported manufactured goods from Britain and exported agricultural products to Britain. The economic strength of Britain in this period could be called the world economic hegemony, and no other country could match it. Another huge economic source of Britain was the trading system formed with the colonies. Britain used its good industrial base to process raw materials from overseas colonies into manufactured goods and then exported them to the colonies. In this way, the overseas colonies were not only the source of raw materials for Britain, but also the export market of commodities. It was a complete chain of trade and commerce that allowed a steady stream of wealth to flow into Britain and further its position as the world's economic superpower. The prosperity of commercial trade could provide sufficient funds for the construction of the British navy, and at the same time, a strong naval force could provide a better guarantee for the development of maritime trade in the UK. The two supplement each other, and finally achieved the dominance of the British sea in the 18th century.

France is a traditional agricultural country with relatively weak industrial strength. Therefore, the colonial and metropolitan countries cannot be closely linked with each other by the trade chain like Britain, and the colonies have not become the impetus for France to develop industry. The lack of adequate financial support affects its spending on the navy. "So the colonies, which are under their own control, provide the surest support for their maritime power from outside."

The British policy of "balance of power on the continent" means that in order to maintain the hegemonic position, Britain relies on its own economic and military strength to make the powers on the European continent contain and compete with each other to prevent one country from dominating Europe. The essence is that Britain manipulates the political balance in Europe, maintains Britain's overseas interests in the continent, and maintains Britain's maritime hegemony.

Britain's balance of power diplomacy first benefits from its unique geographical advantages and strong sea power. Britain is an island country, which determines that it has the advantage of congenital development of sea power. Britain is across the sea from the continent. Any European country that wants to attack Britain must cross the English channel. Thus, Britain could be secure by concentrating its naval defence there. Britain had no road borders and had little need to develop an army, which focused on building a strong navy. In 1657, the British military expenditure was 287.18 million pounds, including 74.12 million pounds for the navy. Between 1689 and 1714, the British navy accounted for 35% of the total British defense expenditure, while the figure in France was less than 10%. The military expenditure of the British navy has been kept at a relatively high level, which has laid a good foundation for maintaining the superiority of the British navy.

Out of the need of national interests, Britain never wants hegemony on the European continent. The balance of power policy enables Britain to maintain the balance of power on the European continent by means of separation, isolation and interference. Under the guidance of the balance of power policy, Britain has always maintained an ambiguous relationship with the European continent, so that it would not be involved in the continental disputes and would not be isolated when hegemony emerged. Britain can avoid the responsibility of forming an alliance with European countries, and can maximize its own interests. For example, from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, Britain organized seven anti-french alliances and used various means to break the situation that napoleon dominated Europe. In the franco-prussian war in the late 19th century, Britain maintained "glorious isolation"; at the end of the 19th century, Germany rose, and the contradiction between Britain and Germany rose to be the main contradiction. Britain immediately adjusted the relationship with France and Russia, formed the confrontation between the entente countries and Germany as the core ally, and finally defeated the opponent. Britain USES the balance of power policy to make the European powers contain each other and maintain its own maritime hegemony, so as to safeguard the interests of Britain in the continent and overseas.

Today, although the eu has become an influential regional alliance in the world and can almost speak with one voice, the subtle relationship between China, Britain and France in the eu has greatly affected the unity of the eu, and the centuries-old struggle between Britain and France will not dissipate for a while. And the most fundamental reason is the two nations in the economic, political, military interests, both want to do Europe and even the hegemony of the world. The above various reasons, plus French at the same time maintaining the army and navy military spending huge, didn't like the British colonial colonize bring wealth to support troops, not only conducive to capital primitive accumulation, can't provide the necessary financial support for the development of capitalism, also slow down the process of the industrial revolution, France caused later French economic strength behind the UK for a long time.

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