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A grammar school in England

2019-01-03 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- A grammar school in England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的文法学校。英国的文法学校指的是以教会、寺院、个人或团体捐办,以传授古典知识和文法为宗旨的教育组织,其毕业生一般进入牛津、剑桥大学,或成为官吏、医师、法官和教师等社会中上阶层人员。文法学校的称呼与其教育任务密切相关。由于文法学校主要培养具有广博知识、能言善辩的政治家等社会上层的官员和教会主持,所以文法学校自萌芽始,就以教授古典语言、修辞、文法作为教育的最高宗旨和根本目标。

grammar school,英国文法学校,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

Grammar schools have a long history, going back even to Roman times. The name "grammar school" was officially established in 1387. After the Renaissance and the budding of capitalist economy, grammar schools developed greatly. The early decades of the sixteenth century saw even more rapid development; after the reformation, it expanded and reached its peak in 1611 ~ 1630. Professor W.K. Jordan estimates that by 1660 there would have been one grammar school for every 4,400 people, the highest ratio of population to school in Britain before the 20th century. After the 18th century, the development of grammar schools was in a low ebb and gradually declined. By the end of the 20th century, most grammar schools had been transformed and replaced by comprehensive schools. According to the 1986 statistics, grammar schools account for less than 3% of the total middle schools, and this is a big change from the early days. Throughout its emergence, development and extinction, English grammar schools mainly have the following historical characteristics.

The appellation of grammar school is closely related to education task. Since grammar schools mainly train officials and church leaders from the upper class, such as politicians and eloquent speakers with broad knowledge, grammar schools have taken teaching classical language, rhetoric and grammar as the highest purpose and fundamental goal of education since its inception. In the middle ages, grammar schools at the beginning of their establishment focused on theology and the "seven arts", thus establishing the academic tradition of their curriculum. "Seven arts" is a learning subject inherited from ancient greco-roman culture, including "three arts" and "four arts". Grammar refers not only to Latin law, but also to the basic knowledge of Latin and literature. Grammar is the most important of the seven arts, and it is also a necessary lingua franca for upper-class communication, so it has become the focus of grammar schools. Root cause profound classical sex makes scientific knowledge education status in the grammar school courses, in spite of the Renaissance, religious reform and the impact of the industrial revolution has forced grammar schools add some secular or natural science course, but throughout the previous history curriculum development in the 20th century, dominated by classical courses and grammar has been the most notable features of grammar school. The classical tradition played an important role in establishing the high historical status and academic value of grammar schools, but it ignored practical subjects, deviated from the needs of The Times and seriously hindered the development of social economy. It also decided that the final development path of grammar schools was to move from the classical and academic nature to the secular and scientific nature.

The Christian church's involvement in education is a prominent feature of British educational history. In fact, the church provides education in order to suppress ambition, and submissiveness is considered a virtue. In the eyes of missionaries, religion and education are inseparable and belong to the duties of the church. Medieval grammar schools were almost entirely founded and run by the church. The first grammar school was in Canterbury. For nearly 1,000 years from the arrival of augustine until the reformation, the church had complete control over all organized education except apprenticeship and aristocratic education. In 1543, the reformation took education out of the church, but education was still controlled by the church of England, which was loyal to the king. The edict of 1604 stipulated that anyone who wanted to teach in a school or in a gentleman's home must swear allegiance to the royal supremacy and the teachings of the church of England. Even as late as 1700, grammar-school teachers were the last profession to require the approval of a bishop. After 1870, the church's control over education gradually weakened. The result is that historical humanists recognize the existence of god; even in the "national curriculum" of education reform law in 1988, religion was still regarded as one of the compulsory courses, which shows the profound impact of religion on British society and education. The church's enthusiasm for education objectively promoted the development of education in different periods and to different degrees. However, the purpose of education, with the supremacy of religious authority and asceticism, not only hindered the secularization of education, but also became a conservative force for the establishment of public schools.

Donation and private are the main characteristics of grammar schools. Grammar schools, dominated by donations from churches, monasteries, individuals or groups, were founded to train the elite students needed for Latin careers at the time, and were open to all classes of society in the selection process. However, with the improvement of education quality of grammar schools and the continuous increase of education funding, grammar schools were gradually occupied by the aristocracy and upper middle class and embarked on the path of elite education. After the bourgeoisie took power, the training objects of grammar schools gradually expanded from the children of aristocrats and monks to the children of big industrialists, big businessmen and rural gentry, who constituted the main body of students in grammar schools. In addition, the exclusive "preparatory schools" specially designed for the aristocracy to enter grammar schools also intensified the class nature of grammar schools, resulting in almost complete deprivation of admission opportunities for the lower class. The conflict was most acute in the 19th century. In order to achieve the purpose of gentleman education, educator John Locke opposes frequent contact between young people and the "uneducated and unvirtuous" lower class, so as to avoid learning from them "vulgar words, tricks and vices". The distinctive class nature of grammar schools is evident.

Discipline is embodied in the teaching and management methods of grammar schools. Many of the features of medieval grammar schools persisted into the early modern period. If grammar school enrolls the student of 12 ~ 16 years old commonly, a classroom, a teacher, everyday class time is very long, the possibility is 10 hours above, begin at 6 o 'clock in the morning, study 6 days a week, use corporal punishment to wait. As the Latin popular among the upper class in Britain, its grammatical rules are overelaborate and complex, coupled with the difficulty and obscurity of ancient texts and classics. Teachers have been telling the Latin mainly, students record and recite it, and their schoolwork is very heavy. Teachers are strict in teaching and corporal punishment prevails. Corporal punishment was still common in the 19th century, with eton headmaster Dr Kit still in his 60s, vigorous enough to whip 80 pupils a day, and tensions between teachers and students. After the Renaissance, kwame meneux, Locke, bacon, and so on, constantly attacked its violent education method and improved its teaching method without seeking understanding. However, strict teaching discipline and almost Spartan life training were regarded as the best and most effective education means at that time, and this tradition can still be seen in modern grammar schools. In fact, strict education methods and means, to a certain extent, are effective in promoting students to master profound and systematic knowledge, but the key is that teachers should have the ability of teaching and training, and never at the expense of students' individual freedom. In general, the concept of teachers and students' authority and students' completely passive acceptance of teaching and learning accompanied the prosperity of grammar schools from the beginning to the end. After the 20th century, the society began to change after having a deeper understanding of children's psychology, and students' subjectivity in learning was gradually valued.

In a certain historical period, grammar schools have played an active role in promoting the development of universities and society. But with the rapid development of society and economy, grammar schools own legacy level, classical ills such as increasingly protruding, combined with the trend of democratization of education made the lower class, for the existing form of grammar schools grumbled, grammar school endangered crisis, its retained problem also become one of the focuses of Labour and the tories debate. The question of the ultimate retention of grammar schools is still a matter of debate, but the government as a whole remains tolerant of their practices. After the 20th century, in view of the grammar school in the UK high academic status, but also in order to maintain the healthy development of the private schools of independence and, the British government in the implementation of the "auxiliary places plan" at the same time, to the grammar school education objectives, curriculum, teaching, school conditions, such as important are: 1945 ~ 1951, the establishment of the post-war system of three kinds of school, namely grammar school, technical secondary school, the modern middle school; From 1952 to 1962, three kinds of schools shook and comprehensive schools took root and developed. The "national curriculum" stipulated in the education reform law in 1988 and so on. Nowadays, there are few independent grammar schools, but they still have their own traditional features compared with the grammar courses in comprehensive schools. Although the core courses and basic courses are "the same", academic courses are still emphasized, Latin and Greek courses are also offered, and French, German and Russian are also attached great importance. The enlightenment of English grammar schools on education in China mainly lies in the following two aspects.

Firstly, the proportion of classical knowledge in the curriculum should be appropriately increased. Curriculum adjustment is the core of education reform. After eight curriculum reforms since the founding of the People's Republic of China, curriculum selection and setting have been constantly updated. Primary and middle school students in China generally lack interest in ancient cultural knowledge, but especially yearn for "bilingual" schools, this phenomenon should cause enough attention. It is a relief that in recent years "Confucius institutes" have been established all over the world. The "private school" craze in some cities also shows the great charm of classical cultural knowledge. Therefore, in the current curriculum reform of our country, learning from the grammar schools' attention to classical knowledge and academic tradition, we should appropriately increase the classical texts and classical knowledge as required or optional reading materials for students, and cooperate with teachers' careful guidance, so as to realize the education purpose of cultivating character and sentiment and cultivating the cultivation of high culture.

Second, give the curriculum more flexibility. The long tradition of local curricula and their contents being decided by principals and teachers in Britain ended with the promulgation of the "national curriculum". But does not mean that schools and teachers to become passive executors of the course, "national curriculum" regulation on the implementation of the national curriculum at the same time, also leave room for independent setting and development of school-based curriculum, at the same time, and there is no hard and fast rules in all subjects of teaching hours, but suggested that the total teaching hours in all the subjects should account for 70% of the total teaching hours in school. This strategy is conducive to the development of local curriculum, but also mobilize the enthusiasm of schools and teachers in the work, it is worth our implementation of the curriculum, especially the development of school-based curriculum for reference. In addition, the British national curriculum after the 1980s set science, English and mathematics as the core curriculum, and listed technology as one of the national basic courses, which highlighted the importance of career education to China's career education is not without inspiration.

Create a new teaching relationship of "yan zhong has love". Advocating democracy and harmony of teacher-student relationship is the premise and foundation of current education teaching reform, and it is also a great historical progress that challenges the traditional "teacher authority". At present, under the guidance of the macroscopic goals of "people-oriented" and "promoting the comprehensive and harmonious development of students", education in China has become the ideal pursuit of teacher-student relationship. However, strict requirements are not excluded in some knowledge fields, especially for learning some profound, abstract and systematic theoretical knowledge or some difficult skills. Admittedly, "strict teacher gives gao tuo" simple and crude fact is not advisable, but sometimes, strict requirements than blindly "appreciate" sex praise more effective. Sun yunxiao, deputy director of the China youth research center, believes that education without punishment is incomplete education. Punishment is never equal to corporal punishment, nor is it injury, psychological abuse, discrimination or a blow to one's self-confidence. Punishment is a double-edged sword, a dangerous and highly difficult education skill that can harm people if not done right. The more punishment, the more respect! As long as in the student age characteristics and the ability to accept licensing scope, with the education philosophy of promoting students' all-round development of body and mind, strict teaching methods, research method, to timely praise and encourage, the strict and effective combination of deep concern to do "YanZhongYou love", this "double-base" education especially in pure sex knowledge education teaching has great significance to explore.

In addition, in education management, the tradition of local and school autonomy and non-interference of the state in education was an important reason for the slow development of education in Britain before the 20th century. Compared with the convergence of education in Britain, China has achieved great success, which is undoubtedly due to the timely and effective guidance and intervention of the state on education. In this day and age, basic education is facing new problems and challenges, we should continue to insist on and strengthen the national coordination and guidance role in education development at the same time, given the autonomy of local authorities, schools and teachers more, harmonious and three-level management, assist system play a good macroeconomic regulation and control function, the supervision of the medium and micro operation of education, in order to ensure that basic education sustainable development.

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