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British maritime regulation

2018-11-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- British maritime regulation,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的海事监管。英国是世界上最早从事海上运输的国家之一。早在19世纪初,英国就成立了专业海事监管与海上救助机构。随着海洋经济的发展和海上运输模式的变化,英国也在不断完善海事监管救助机构的功能和运转,重点体现在海上搜救的专业化和社会化、海事监管理念的服务化和标准化、海事监管机构的精简化和高效化。

British maritime,英国海事监管,assignment代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

Drawing lessons from the maritime management experience of Britain and other maritime powers, we can improve the service concept of maritime institutions, promote the flat management of maritime institutions, strengthen the integration of maritime resources, and promote the exchange of excellent personnel to improve the overall level of maritime supervision in China.

As a traditional maritime power, how to ensure the safety of maritime transport is an important proposition accompanying its social development. As early as 1809, the United Kingdom established the maritime defense guard to prevent maritime smuggling and maritime accident rescue. By 1821, the maritime defence guard had officially become her majesty's coast guard, tasked with organizing and deploying forces to search for and rescue people in distress at sea. At the end of last century, with the development of the international maritime organization, Britain established the maritime and coast guard department on the basis of the original maritime safety department and coast guard, which was fully responsible for national maritime affairs.

The department of transport is the national maritime authority under which the British maritime and coast guard service is specifically responsible for maritime matters. Established in 1998, the British maritime and coastguard service is responsible for directing and coordinating search and rescue efforts within the search and rescue responsibility area to ensure the safety of personnel and vessels at sea and near shore. Second, check whether the ship meets international and British maritime safety standards, and implement the safety control of port state and flag state. Third, preventing and controlling Marine pollution; Fourth, promote the development of international maritime standards and policies; Fifth is to provide crew qualification assessment and certification services. It has the following characteristics:

The professionalization of MCA is reflected in the professionalization of daily training of search and rescue personnel, the advanced development of search and rescue boats, planes and equipment, and the high efficiency of coordination and cooperation of search and rescue operations. MCA has 362 volunteer teams in coastal ports across the country, with a total of about 3,500 volunteers. In normal times, it carries out professional training, regular exercises and training and assessment on rescue personnel to ensure that they have various search and rescue skills. Four search and rescue bases under the MCA are equipped with four search and rescue helicopters and several rescue tugs. As an important non-governmental assistance organization of MCA, the royal lifeboat association of the United Kingdom has 232 lifeboat stations and 444 lifeboats of more than 10 all-weather types, which can effectively cover coastal waters. MCA can also coordinate with the royal navy and air force to provide helicopter and boat rescue if necessary. In terms of equipment, MCA's 18 radar stations and AIS stations cover the entire coastal waters, and British satellite company can also provide effective satellite data support for search and rescue.

More than 90 per cent of all search and rescue efforts across the UK are being carried out by social forces. Rescue at sea depends largely on RNLI to carry out, and MCA is only in charge of search and rescue command. Founded in 1824, RNLI is the oldest maritime search and rescue charity in the world. It is funded by local town councils and charities. According to 2012 statistics, the society's lifeboats were used 8,321 times, rescuing 7,912 people, and were the main force in the UK's maritime and coastal search and rescue operations.

The function of British government is based on service. MCA divides the service objects into two categories, one is the professional personnel engaged in the shipping profession, the second is the seaside leisure entertainment general population. For all kinds of people, MCA gives relevant opinions and strategies in the way of "advisor", instead of proposing relevant requirements and standards from the perspective of "manager". For example, in ship inspection, MCA promises to work in a cooperative and partnership relationship, which embodies the concept of service object as the center, avoids the contradiction, and highlights the maritime management obligations, responsibilities and goals.

MCA has been continuously improving its service level. Its main feature is to constantly refine service standards and make external commitments. For example, the commitment standard for search and rescue: response within 10 seconds after receiving the alarm; After receiving the alarm, make the search and rescue plan and implement the action within 5 minutes; After the emergency procedure is started, the water in danger will be reached within the specified time. Standards for the issuance of crew certificates: after receiving the application with complete documents, the admission ticket will be issued within 28 days to approve the examination; The crew certificate shall be issued within 14 days after receiving the application with qualified results and complete documents; Application for eligibility to be granted within 14 days of receipt of the crew payment receipt.

MCA adheres to the flat development concept, reduces the intermediate management level and highlights the effect of front-line organizations.

The MCA operates a divisional division, with four divisions, including the east of England, wales and the west of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, breaking down the administrative boundaries. Under the four sub-districts, there are 18 maritime regulatory authorities, 17 maritime search and rescue coordination centres, 1 shipping and crew registration centre, 1 EPIRB centre and 1 fishing vessel inspection centre. Each level has a clear division of labor, the combination of blocks, efficient operation.

MCA adopts the board leadership system and sets up five departments, namely maritime comprehensive business department, technical service department, quality standard control department, human resources department and finance department. The board of directors consists of four members, namely the chief executive officer, who is fully responsible for the work of MCA; Director of maritime safety and standards control, responsible for the safety and quality control of ships and crew; Policy and finance director, responsible for finance and coordination; Maritime operations executive director responsible for maritime search and rescue, pollution control, human resources and development management. 4 clear division of labor, coordination and cooperation, to ensure efficient operation of the organization.

All departments of MCA coordinate and cooperate with each other. The maritime comprehensive service department is responsible for carrying out legal inspection and safety inspection of ships, ensuring that ships of their own nationality meet domestic safety standards, implementing port state supervision of ships of other nationalities, conducting investigation and prosecution of merchant ships that violate shipping regulations, assisting in maritime search and rescue and preventing ship pollution; The technical services department is responsible for radio and voice communications systems; The quality standards control department is responsible for the assessment and formulation of standards for the ship, crew, Marine environment and internal quality management; The human resources department is responsible for internal human resources management; The finance department is responsible for the financial management of MCA and the provision of contract services. Two maritime business status, comprehensive sales department consists of the maritime such as law enforcement, inspection, shipping, search and rescue response out of the eight departments, such as quality control consists of the quality management system, quality, risk analysis and prevention area to the shipping, navigation safety, such as nine departments, further refinement of the maritime business, better for small, specialized, refined maritime business management.

As the concepts of "China dream" and "maritime power" have been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, the maritime development strategy has become an important part of the national development strategy. How to effectively promote the scientific development of maritime management and meet the new requirements of changing domestic and international situation is a major opportunity and challenge faced by maritime management institutions. Referring to the maritime management experience of Britain and other western powers, the following Suggestions are proposed for the development of maritime management in China:

Although in recent years, China has proposed the transformation of government functions and highlighted the concept of service, most management agencies and public officials still think about their work from the perspective of "managers". In the establishment of institutions and the division of responsibilities, they mainly consider the factors of internal management and ignore the service counterparts. Therefore, in the future, more attention should be paid to the awareness of transposition thinking, the concept of service management should be set up, and the opinions of shipping enterprises and waterborne employees should be listened to, so as to achieve the scientific development of maritime management through both internal management and external environment.

At present, China is implementing a three-level management and four-level implementation mechanism. Although the responsibilities and functions of institutions at all levels are clearly defined, they still show shortcomings such as information transfer at different levels and cumbersome process. Taking the reporting of dangerous situations and instructions for example, the Marine department first reported to the branch bureau, the branch bureau reported to the direct department bureau, and the direct department reported to the department search and rescue center office for transmission from bottom to top. Conversely, the transmission of search and rescue instructions was also distributed from top to bottom. To some extent, it reduced efficiency and affected the search and rescue effect. It can be learned from the UK that the way of direct instructions from MRCC to search and rescue organizations is to implement flat management. A certain level of maritime or search and rescue organization, bypassing the original intermediate level and directly facing the execution level, is one of the directions for future search and rescue mechanism reform.

Modernization of equipment system, informationization of supervision technology and professionalization of personnel are important factors to promote the rapid development of maritime industry. In spite of the maritime 20 years of rapid development, countries spend a lot of money to introduce such as VTS, of AIS and ECDIS and other advanced equipment and regulation system, equipped on certain hardware, is already the world's leading level in our country, but in such aspects as system, management and maintenance of the application of existing problems, has yet to give full play to the effect of modern equipment system, mainly manifested in the following points: one is the operating personnel, maintenance personnel, equipped with did not meet the requirements; Second, things like repeated input and resource waste happen from time to time. Third, some resources fail to achieve a high degree of integration, and the phenomenon of each department fighting for itself is more prominent. To solve these problems, can begin from the following two points: one is standing in the height of the national development strategy, formulate a unified construction and management, data standard, specification, effectively integrate the regulatory systems, build national maritime regulatory network platform, wading institutions and departments are using this platform, realize information sharing and resource integration. 2 it is to strengthen the cultivation of the maritime professionals, use, communication and training mode to cultivate virtuous cycle, previously taught a generation after generation, different people communicate with each other in the field of communication, not only ensure the high quality, professional team of continuously updated, and realize the efficient to cultivate inter-disciplinary talent, is an important role in promoting the development of China's maritime management maintain a high level.

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