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American higher education legislative principles

2018-10-30 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American higher education legislative principles,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国高等教育的立法。美国高等教育法的发展有其政治原因,也有高等教育发展的内在要求的体现。民主是美国教育立法的一项基本原则,其首要的要求是国民必须参与教育法规政策的制定,促进教育决策和教育立法的民主以及体现公民参与的社会性和公开性。

American higher education law,美国高等教育法,assignment代写,作业代写,美国作业代写

In American history, education was considered a private, religious, philanthropic undertaking. In this regard, the central government should only be in the position of assistance and guidance. After independence, the federal constitution does not have the provisions of education, and does not give the federal government the authority to lead education, while the state regulates education, thus forming the education administrative system with local decentralization. When America started its universities, the government adopted a laissez-faire policy towards higher education, and certainly no special higher education law. After the civil war, because of the urgent need to develop industry and commerce, congress passed the morrel act in 1861 when Lincoln was President. Since the morrell act came out, the American higher education law has been in development for only a hundred years. However, in this short process, American higher education law has achieved amazing development, especially since the 1950s, with the great changes in social production and life and the development of higher education itself, American higher education laws have mushroomed. Among the most famous laws are: national defense education law, higher school equipment law, higher education law, higher education amendment law, etc. The emergence of these laws has largely contributed to the rapid development of higher education in the United States. The higher education law of the United States is very rich in content, and the level is relatively perfect, such as the federal higher education law, the state higher education law, the local higher education law, as well as the university's own "law", they have become the important leverage and benchmark for the development of the American higher education career.

Americans value of higher education, as early as colonial times that a college is the main tool transfer science culture, so with British university based on successively built, wei and ? Mary school of government at Harvard University, Yale university and Dartmouth chang institute 9 private higher schools, the purpose is to cultivating talents, church leaders its right to hold in the hands of the church. After the United States declared its independence from the United Kingdom, the federal government was established, and the public intellectuals advocated the establishment of public universities in view of the importance of higher education to the establishment of a democratic society. In 1787, congress passed the northwest act, stipulating that "religion, morality, and knowledge are necessary for good government and human happiness, and schools and education facilities will be permanently encouraged." By statute, the federal government gave five million acres of land to a state university in the northwestern state of Ohio, beginning both the higher education legislation and the land grant college. In 1819, when the state government of New Hampshire wanted to replace Dartmouth college as a state university, the college hired lawyers to file complaints with the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, pursuant to article 10, paragraph 1, of the constitution, states shall not, by any statute, undermine the contract by ruling that the act of the state government is unconstitutional. The decision gave legal protection to private universities, which have grown rapidly. Since the state could not change private to state universities, the states committed themselves to the creation of state universities. In 1862, congress passed the morrell act, which required each state to have one member of congress and one member of congress, and the federal government established agricultural or engineering colleges on 30,000 acres of land. The hatch act, passed in 1887, for the first time provided that the federal government did not provide direct financial assistance to land grant colleges through the states in which they were located to open agricultural research stations and support the dissemination and dissemination of agricultural research and results.

After World War II a large number of demobilized soldiers poured into colleges and universities with the support of the gi bill. Education has developed rapidly through multi-channel and multi-form education. In 1957, when the Soviet union launched its first satellite, international competition increased. The United States saw itself lagging behind the Soviet union in science and technology. It is required to strengthen the teaching of science, mathematics and modern foreign languages, and to determine the granting of scholarships and loans to graduate students to encourage them to enrich the faculty of higher education and improve the teaching quality of education. To further implement the national defense education law, the government has also passed a series of separate regulations, such as the advanced education facility act of 1963, which provides special grants and loans to science, mathematics, modern foreign languages, engineering and other disciplines. The health professional education assistance act, passed in the same year, provides grants and loans to students majoring in health and invests in the construction or improvement of teaching and research facilities for health majors. In order to adapt to the new strategic situation of the United States' transition to economic and technological development, in 1965, congress formulated and passed the higher education act, which made a new adjustment to higher education, strengthened the comprehensive financial support, and increased various economic and management disciplines as the support focus. The education career development act of 1967 was a special amendment, the higher education law implementation of grandiose plans for the staff training, provides the high quality for the education workers opportunities for career preparation, and to encourage creative people of talent in science and skills as a teaching job, make normal education program to meet the needs of the schools and universities. In 1972, congress passed two amendments to higher education act, both of which further specified the federal government to expand and increase funding for higher education, and explicitly prohibited schools from practicing gender discrimination in admissions policies to promote the democratization of higher education.

From the source of higher education legislation in the United States, we can see that the Dartmouth college decision shows that it is not feasible to change the old university by administrative means, so it is changed into legislative means. The northwest act is the first example of the federal government's influence on institutions of higher learning through legislation. The morel act is reforming the old material of higher education, its legislative purpose of mainly through land grant to create, change of higher education of the university of internal structure, improve the heavy practical, personality, education equality of opportunity, and primary and secondary school education of the higher education system in the nation's political and economic service, serve for the industrial revolution, promote the modernization of industrial and agricultural production. In order to promote the realization of this purpose, the hatch act provided that the federal government could directly provide funding for universities, support colleges and universities to open agricultural science and technology experimental stations, strengthen the promotion of agricultural science and technology in the United States, and make the higher education system closely linked with the political and economic system of the United States. The national defense education law is the response to the Soviet union first launched the first man-made satellite, knowledgeable people in the United States, the United States in the field of high-tech competition lose, the most fundamental reason lies in education, especially higher education has failed to meet the needs of the development of science and technology and national defense construction, the cultivation of the advanced science and technology and engineering and technical personnel, both in quantity and quality lags behind that of the Soviet union. The higher education law, the key analysis with respect to its content, legislative purpose lies in the national defense education law and an overhaul of the higher education facilities act and reinforcement, the aim is to expand again and update the teaching and research facilities, improve the training ability and the quality of institutions of higher learning, strengthen the institutions of higher learning and social practice, such as politics, economy, science and technology, national defense closely, expand the social functions of institutions of higher learning. Thus, the act provided that the federal government provided $25 million in aid for the fiscal years 1965-1966, and $50 million each for the next two years, to fund institutions of higher learning for local economic development, to carry out various adult education and continue education; We should encourage institutions of higher learning to participate in solving various social and practical problems in their communities and promote the development of community economy and technology.

The development of higher education law in the United States has its own political reasons, such as stabilizing social order, developing people's intelligence, promoting social development and improving the quality of the population, but it is also an embodiment of the inherent requirements of the development of higher education. The development of education must be supported and guaranteed by complete legal system and administrative system, so as to develop in a healthy, orderly and efficient way. Although the U.S. government's higher education legislation is not long, it shows great advantages due to its own inherited legal culture. The whole education legal system is the main body of written law, as the main basis of precedent, because with the popularization and development of education and its rising status, it urgently needs state intervention, support and regulation. As a result, written law developed rapidly. According to the national education statistical center, from the founding of the United States to 1978, congress passed 87 laws on education. As for legislation involving higher education, it is also numerous. Major have the morel act in 1862, the hatch act in 1887 and 1890 the morel - McComas act, passed in 1958, the national defense education act, 1963 of the act of higher education facilities, the vocational education law, the health professional education assistance act and the higher education act of 1968 and 1972 amendment. But case law is an important addition. For example, the principle of preferential treatment for college admissions was established by the Supreme Court in the California board of directors v. baker case in 1978. Moreover, the whole education legal system is relatively perfect, and the legal system is more detailed and rigorous. The horizontal structure is rich in content, covers a wide range, and covers a wide range of education, involving all aspects of national education. There is a complete set of supporting systems with a distinct vertical structure and orderly hierarchy. Under the constitution, the national assembly or the state assembly shall formulate various basic education laws to clearly define the basic principles and major guidelines for education behavior in related fields. Under each education law, the government or education administrative department shall formulate low-level legal documents, mainly to provide supporting services for the specific implementation of the law, and make clear and detailed provisions on various issues that may be involved in the implementation of the law. Even universities and colleges have their own court of arbitration. The relationship between each level of education regulations is that its principle decreases successively and its content operability increases successively. That is administering in the United States, the education law execution and supervision of increasingly mature, thanks to the United States has a strict system of education law enforcement with education sovereign states, the federal government has no direct jurisdiction in colleges and universities, only through the education funding form briefly infiltration education will, so state responsibility, the education administrative authorities at various levels strictly and shall be supervised by the judicial relief. Disputes between citizens or schools and the education administration, citizens and schools, and even the enactment of laws that are unconstitutional, can seek the ultimate justice of the judiciary. Of course, this rule of law must also be based on the understanding, observance, application and trust of citizens to education laws. With this foundation, it creates a good social environment for the implementation of education law.

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