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The international outlook of the British school

2018-10-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The international outlook of the British school,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国学派的国际社会观英国学派以理性主义为基底,综合了霍布斯主义、格劳秀斯主义和康德主义三种国际关系思想传统,创立了独特的国际社会观。作为一种极具包容性的国际关系理论,它从欧洲的现实中找到了某些实证性事例,主要体现在较好地解答了传统欧洲一体化理论所未能充分解释的两个问题,即欧洲一体化的内部特征及其国际定位问题。

British school,英国学派的国际社会观,assignment代写,作业代写,美国作业代写

For a long time, the discourse power of international relations theory has been dominated and controlled by the international relations circle in the United States, but this does not mean that other countries have no contribution to the development of international relations theory. The emergence of the British school is a good example. Apart from the mainstream theory of international relations, the British school has won the favor of the theoretical circle of international relations with its unique charm and value. The British school, also known as the international school of society, aims to trace the history and development process of the international community and reveal the nature and function of the international community.

The British school's discussion of the international community started from its ideological origins. According to white, there are three traditions in the field of international relations theory: realism, rationalism and revolutionism, which are respectively corresponding to the three thoughts of Hobbes, grotius and Kant. These three traditions have different interpretations of the nature of international relations, and the British school is the product of these three traditional dialogues.

Hobbism adheres to the concept of conflict in international relations. It believes that in an anarchic state system, the interests between states are always in conflict, so the state will do whatever it can to achieve its own purposes. On the issue of the role of morality and international norms, it holds that morality and international law are of no importance to national interests. The kantianism goes to the other extreme, believing that international relations are in essence the relations between people in a potential human community. In this community of all mankind, people have common interests and cooperation is the main theme of international politics. The kantians emphasized international morality, which encouraged not coexistence and cooperation among states, but the overthrow of the state system and its replacement by the world society. Gloxists, on the other hand, lies between the hobbesian tradition and the Kantian tradition. But when it comes to the substance of international relations, it diverges from hobbism. In the eyes of the gloxists, international relations are neither the complete conflicts of interests between countries nor the pure unity of interests. The most typical international behavior is not the war between countries, but the economic and social interaction between them. In this process of communication, countries should be bound by the social rules and institutions they constitute. The purpose of the rule is not to overthrow the international system and replace it with the world community, but to let countries achieve cooperation and coexistence in the international community.

The British school believes that realism is too pessimistic and revolutionism is too idealistic, and only rationalism is the most liberal theory of international relations. On the one hand, it abandons the realistic view that anarchy inevitably leads to conflict, and on the other hand, it abandons the overly ideal world social view of revolution. Of rationalism in the English school, advocate does not mean that the realism and revolutionary socialism completely rejected, because of realism, rationalism and revolutionary socialism three traditional relationship is a kind of "coexistence and complementary", be short of one cannot, must combine three traditional, make them work together, to form a optimization ideas. Therefore, the British school put forward three key concepts of international system, international society and world society to construct the picture of international relations on the basis of integrating these three theories of international relations, and took international society as its core idea.

The international system and the international community are the concepts that emerged earlier in the British school. According to Boer, "if two or more countries have enough contacts, and one country can have enough influence on the decision-making of other countries to facilitate certain behaviors, then the national system or the international system emerges". "And" if a group of nations recognizes that they have common interests and values, and that their relations with each other are governed by a common set of rules, and that together they construct a common system, then the international community emerges ". The international community is divided into regional and global international society, international society at the regional international society how to transition to a global issue of the international community, the English school predecessors did not make a clear explanation, they only from a historical perspective of eurocentrism explain the formation of the international community is how to, such as white is analyzed from the perspective of European cultural identity formation of the international community, the Boolean is in system identification is put forward on the basis of the theory of the function of the international community to form, they are unable to answer the expansion of the international community. In this regard, buzan put forward a theory of "common identity" to analyze the contemporary global pluralistic international society. He believes that "" common identity" "is the best reason for the international system to move towards the international community and the best path for the regional international community to move towards the global international community. System of Shared norms, rules, and eventually must develop a common identity, or produced by common identity, form "weness", between the members of the international community must have common interests identification, values, because when the regional international society and further extend its area to the global expansion, those who attempt to melt the regional countries despite of the international community may share some of the regional international society system, but not necessarily with Shared culture, it encountered more global international society can only be cultural, may not be a combination of institutional. At this point, the best bond that sustains the global international community can only be the identity of its members.

On the relationship between the international community and the international system, buer believes that the international community takes the international system as the premise of its own existence, but the international system may not necessarily take the international community as the foundation of its own existence. In the international system, countries influence each other's behaviors through interaction, but it does not necessarily lead to their Shared interests and values. In addition, compared with the traditional international system of realism, the international community of rationalism is much more stable.

The concept of world society came into being relatively late. The focus of the international community is relations between countries, while the world community regards individuals, non-governmental organizations and even the whole human as the focus of global social identity and arrangement. So far, the British school has no clear consensus on the relationship between the international community and the world community. While the two appear to be mutually antagonistic in some ways, such as the international community's insistence on the assumption of anarchy and the world's emphasis on universal human interests, buzan argues that, on the whole, they complement each other and are premised on each other's development. Because without the support of world social concept and culture, there can be no international development; Similarly, there can be no world society without the support of the stable political structure of the international community.

For a long time, the traditional theory of European integration has focused on the analysis of countermeasures and the research of experience. They often talk about how to promote the development of the European integration process from a certain perspective, thus inevitably with some degree of defects. Federalism, for example, advocates top-down integration through the establishment of a federal state in the form of legislation, but it ignores the impact of national sovereignty on the integration process. New functionalism advocates that all sovereign states realize integration from bottom to top through technical, economic and political cooperation on the basis of transferring part of sovereignty. The problem is that it does not recognise that the transfer of state sovereignty requires a political consensus, and that the current political consensus on European integration is far from there. Socialism on the analysis of the European integration between governments, the member national governments as the primary actors, in particular, stressed the government's priorities and intergovernmental negotiations influence on integration process, but it ignores the supranational and international actors in the policy-making process, the importance of not fully reflect the system actual role in the European Union. It can be seen that these theories fail to capture the operating characteristics of the internal governance system of the eu as a whole and underestimate the influence of European external environment on its integration process. The British school's view of international society makes up for these deficiencies. On the one hand, it grasps the characteristics of the European integration process with an overall framework; on the other hand, it interprets the international positioning of such process.

The British school believes that the European integration process is a dualistic process in which the European international community and the European world society exist and work together. Within the European integration process, first of all, there is a European international society, the eu rules and system of the international community must be decided by its members, because the European international society is made up of its specific countries, nation is the center of the international community, have rights that determine what you should do what not to do. In the eyes of the British school, although the international community shapes the state, the state also shapes the international community. The formation of the international community does not mean the death of the state, but on the contrary requires the state to play a central role in the international community. In practice, we can see that every process of European integration is the result of its member states voluntarily giving up part of their sovereignty. Taking the decision-making mechanism as an example, in the integration process, all major issues involving the interests of eu member states are decided by them collectively, such as the European Union treaty, the Amsterdam treaty and the nice treaty.

The British school also believes that there is an eu world society in the process of European integration. First, the cultural and ideological origin of European integration has a long history. It is rooted in the fertile soil of European classical civilization, experienced the baptism of Christian universalism, and was influenced by the thought of "United States of Europe". Under the impetus of this culture and thought, European consciousness has been awakened and grown into a powerful driving force for European integration. Secondly, with the development of European economic integration, the common values of Europe have been deeply rooted in people's minds. The public's social, political and cultural values have been assimilated to different degrees, which further promoted the development of European identity and promoted it to become the carrier and important driving force of European integration. Third, the non-governmental organizations at the eu level are very active, and the exchanges among people within the eu countries are increasingly frequent. They are deepening the development of the eu world society. Finally, in the eu treaty, the establishment of eu citizenship, the further development of European free market system and the development of eu world society provide an important institutional guarantee.

Thus it can be seen that in the eyes of the British school scholars, there exists both an eu international society and an eu world society in the process of European integration. The two interact and influence each other, and one cannot be absent. For its purpose, the practice of European integration is to a large extent to seek a balance between these two societies, striving to learn from each other's advantages and disadvantages and promoting its own development. The British school not only affirms the role of sovereign states in promoting the integration process, but also does not ignore the influence of non-sovereign states, thus giving a meaningful explanation to the theory and practice of European integration.

In English school point of view, although the country is at the heart of the European international society, but the eu member states of the international community and the European Union member states are different, because the members of the international community is through the identity together, ask its members to have a common interest between identification, values and common rules and system, a member of the European Union, however, is not share a common interest identification and value identification and the system of common, and therefore the lack of a consistent identity. The difficult start of the euro, the European constitution in recent years, speaks volumes. The lack of identity makes the structure of the eu's international community quite unstable, which will inevitably hinder the integration process.

How to solve this problem? The British school put forward its own plan, that is, to put it in the broader international environment and seek identity in a larger international society, namely, to seek common interest identity, value identity and common system, so as to promote the development of integration process. Compared with the European Union, the international community of Europe is much larger, but its common system is also relatively weak. In addition, there is a wider global community outside the European international community. The British school believes that in the process of European integration, the eu international community can achieve its development only by constantly absorbing the values of other international communities and constantly learning from the institutions of non-eu international community. For example, the eu's common foreign and security policy is the result of drawing on the European collective security model, which is consistent with European values and plays an effective institutional role at another level within the European international community. Also, the European Union will also promote the development of the European international society further development the international community and the global society, so that the European values and ideals of the international community will be an impact on a larger scale, the build system of economic, diplomatic and security, will also be the European international society and the whole world profound impact on the international community, so as to promote the international community's values and ideals in the world and the further adjustment in the global system.

The relationship between the eu international community, the European international community and the global international community is closely linked through identity. This identification relationship can be seen in the public support of the foreign policy of the former member states of the eu. The British school believes that the international community at these three levels interact and permeate each other, jointly promoting the further development of European integration.

Despite the English school to study the European integration as its ultimate goal, but as a highly inclusive international relations theory, international society is able to effectively solve the European integration process characteristics of internal and international positioning problem, this unique interpretation of European integration made important contribution to the theory and practice. However, any theory has its advantages and disadvantages, and the British school's analysis of European integration also has its shortcomings. For example, the British school believes that identity is the key factor closely related to the members of the international community. However, the British school does not give us a clear answer on the standard issue of identity. Since the standards of identity are not clear, the boundary between the international community and the world community, and between the international community and the international system, is also blurred. The truth is that the British school's potential for European integration is far from being tapped. For example, if European integration has been trying to strike a balance between the eu international community and the eu world community, what can be done to achieve that balance? For example, if we cross the space limit and compare the international community of the European Union now with the international community of other regions, what will be the unexpected findings? All these need further analysis and discussion.

The study of European integration by the British school is still in its infancy, but from the above analysis, it has shown great explanatory power and vitality. As buzan said, combining the British school with the study of European integration will produce creative results in many aspects. It is reasonable to believe that the British school itself will be further recognized and developed.

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