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Economics in corruption

2018-09-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Economics in corruption,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了腐败中的经济学。从经济学角度解释腐败,可以把它看作一种用公权谋私利的经济活动。腐败就是官员或官僚集团利用公共权力谋求私利的一种经营活动,他们总是期望以最低的成本做最大的买卖,获得最大的收益。

corruption,腐败中的经济学,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Because of the exchangeability of power and the inelasticity of demand and supply, power always tends to be corrupt, thus forming the possibility of a market of public power and private interest exchange. Based on the analysis of the cost of corruption, this assignment expounds the inducement factors of corruption, and puts forward the economic countermeasures to strengthen the fight against corruption, such as establishing the system of high-paying corruption maintenance, establishing the system of supervision and perfecting the punitive mechanism against corrupt officials.

At present, corruption has become the focus of attention, which has seriously affected the reform process and the perfection of the socialist market economy system. The study and analysis of the economics of corruption may give us some useful inspirations.

The imf defines corruption as the abuse of public power for private interests. A broader definition is that corruption is a conscious non-compliance through relationships that seek to benefit individuals or related individuals from the act. Transparency international explains what corruption means: the actions of officials in the public sector, whether in political matters or in the civil service, make themselves or those close to them unjustly and illegally rich by misusing the powers entrusted to them by the public. Michael Johnson adopted a broad definition of corruption, which refers to the abuse of public roles or resources, or the illegitimate use of political influence by the public and private sectors. Some Chinese scholars believe that corruption is a kind of abnormal political behavior and political phenomenon in which the party and state public officials abuse their power for personal gain, and thereby violate the accepted discipline, law and moral code in the society at that time.

If from the perspective of economics to study, the corruption is regarded as a kind of economic activity, with a male machiavellian self-interest of economic activity, we can define corruption: corruption is official or bureaucrats' use of public power to seek personal gain a business activities, they always expect to do the biggest buying and selling at the lowest cost, obtain the biggest benefit. We can design a process of calculation and thinking for the corrupt or corrupt group, that is, how much is the input, how much is the benefit, and the most desired goal is to give less and bring back more.

British historian John acton once pointed out that "absolute power inevitably produces absolute corruption." Power and corruption are like moonlight and shadow. Wherever power is, corruption is bound to follow. Power tends to corruption, absolute power tends to absolute corruption, which can be proved by the exchange of power and the characteristics of supply and demand.

The commutability of power means that power, as an external power, can be transformed under certain conditions through the change of power subject. The power possessed by the subject of power is external to his own interests. When he performs the corresponding public office, he has the power. When he leaves the office, he will lose the power. This is the folk saying that "the right not to use, expired become invalid". When the subject of power has power, he can respond with a shout. When he leaves power, "the scenery is gone, people go to tea and cool", which causes the power subject to have a strong sense of loss, which leads to the alienation of power, and the power subject will take the power he holds as a "commodity" in exchange for personal gain, resulting in power corruption.

Generally speaking, under the condition of commodity economy, the development and expansion of any market is determined by the demand. Since power is above the society and has absolute power within a certain range of responsibilities, on the one hand, people yearn for power, pursue power, and have a strong demand for power; On the other hand, the person who ACTS on behalf of the public power is also easily confused by the characteristics of the power. He is easy to regard the power of the people as his own private thing, and trade the power and money with the power in his hand, so that other people's property and public property are taken as private. Through the unreasonable use of public power to meet people's need for power.

It is known from the above analysis that power is the cause of corruption. As an economic activity, corruption has the same rigorous cost calculation process as other economic activities.

Prepaid cost refers to the cost of prepaid expenses in order to gain the right to corruption. Such as the cost of an officer, flattery paid for the energy and suffered mental loss. Prepaid cost is the bottom line of corruption benefits, namely the profit and loss in economic sense. With the increase of prepaid cost, the profit curve of corruption moves up and the degree of corruption deepens accordingly. At present, the value of corruption cases is increasing and the prepayment cost of corruption has a certain relationship.

From the actual situation of our country, the direct cost of corruption is very small. Corruption in the implementation of corruption activities, often as little as a little effort, such as making a phone call, hand over, approval of a note or forged accounting books can be benefited; Sometimes it may be necessary to pay some contact expenses to clear the joints, such as eating, gifts, gifts, etc., but these expenses may also be paid by public funds. However, the cost to society is enormous. From the actual situation of our country, the direct cost paid by corrupt actors is mainly labor and energy. Because our country is in economic transition period, system is not perfect, mechanism, legal system is not perfect, supervise and restrict is weak, make corrupt opportunity is very much, corrupt person carries out corrupt behavior, need not cost very big energy and labor.

Transaction costs are the costs of the corrupt turning power into personal property. The level of this cost is related to the system loophole and the development of the power transaction market. At present, there are more loopholes in the system and more rent-seeking opportunities, which reduces transaction costs. The market development of power transaction plays a decisive role in transaction cost. Before the reform and opening up, there was basically no trading market for power. The transaction cost of power was very high, and it was difficult to deal with corruption, so there was little corruption. Right now, the market for trading power is very mature. Transaction channels, price formation and information transmission all form an "institutionalized" process, so the transaction cost of corruption is greatly reduced, which is another reason for the universalization of corruption.

At present, the opportunity cost of corruption of our country public official is very little, some even is zero. Those who can engage in corruption are public officials with certain public power, whose income is generally relatively fixed and distributed in accordance with uniform regulations, and their income is not high from the current situation. Even if they are investigated and punished for corruption, they have not suffered great economic losses. If it is engaged in some kind of corrupt activity, the time, energy, capital and other resources that it spends in this respect, even if all is spent on its own job, its income will hardly increase. If it is used for other lawful and law-abiding activities, there are also various restrictions, for example, government officials are not allowed to receive part-time remuneration, leading cadres are not allowed to engage in business and enterprise individually, and they are not allowed to engage in paid intermediary activities, etc., so the net profit they get is very small. Corruption, on the other hand, often pays off handsomely.

The cost of risk is the penalty for corruption. At present, the punishment cost of corruption in China is not high. One is the property punishment is very few, the consideration gives way more, make corrupt person political loss economy compensates. Second, the life penalty, the freedom penalty is relatively light. Three is reputation and mental punishment too light, exposure to expose corruption and generally go through relevant departments of the license, so, in addition to some issues a blockbuster case, high political office, a serious case, the vast majority of corrupt of the corruption in news media, the reputation of the vast majority of those losses is limited to a small range.

To raise the salaries of public officials above the average social wage level; It is necessary to provide regular capital increases to public officials, formulate and improve the promotion system of civil servants' ranks, so that civil servants can enjoy the same salary treatment when their posts cannot be promoted; In order to make public officials' salary increase should be linked to the price level, that is, the wage increase should be synchronized with the price rise. It should provide good welfare, including holidays, living allowances, regional living allowances, hardship and hazardous work allowances, and child care, schooling and cultural entertainment. The anti-corruption experience of all countries in the world has proved that one of the measures to curb corruption is to improve the treatment of public servants so that their income can be at the high income level of society, or at least above the middle level. In this way, on the one hand, it can attract and retain talents, improve the working efficiency and service level of government organs and public power departments, and prevent the vulgar staff from flooding these departments. On the other hand, it can reduce the motivation of corruption of public officials. In individual cases, though, low pay is not necessarily corrupt and high pay is not necessarily clean. But overall, higher salaries are better than lower ones. The favorable treatment of civil servants would make it more expensive for civil servants to engage in corruption, thus discouraging the majority from doing so.

We should strengthen the internal supervision mechanism with power mutual restriction as the main content. The core of strengthening internal supervision and restriction is to strengthen supervision and restriction on power. To in charge of people, goods, content such as prone to corruption and malpractices in important positions, breeding, links and parts, at the same time of job rotation on a regular basis, but also to strengthen the construction of post internal restriction mechanism, strengthen the restriction of the business and the division of labor, making the necessary power to run the program, without the restriction of power operation procedures, power will not be able to take effect, form a pattern of mutual restriction of power. We should establish a special supervisory body with relative independence and high authority. A unified, efficient and independent supervisory body should be formed, and new supervisory bodies should be endowed with the powers of discipline inspection, investigation, audit, detention and criminal prosecution.

First, the illegal gains from embezzlement and bribery should be completely recovered. An incidental civil lawsuit shall be filed against the illegal gains that have been squandered and the people's court shall order the criminal to make compensation. At the same time, the property of a corrupt individual should be condemned to confiscation in whole or in part, so as to deprive him of the material basis for his continued crime and create a strong deterrent to other potential embezzlers. Second, corruption and bribery corrupt people should be fined or penalties. In China, a very important reason for the widespread corruption and bribery corruption is that the regulations on the penalties for corruption, bribery and corruption do not have fines or penalties, which make them take advantage of the economy. Therefore, the relevant administrative regulations and criminal laws should be amended to increase the penalties or penalties for embezzlement, bribery and illegal crimes. Third, we will strictly enforce the legal system and intensify investigation and punishment. We must uphold education discipline and give equal weight to corruption as an important measure for strict party discipline, strict government discipline and strict "long" discipline. In the process of punishing corruption, we must strictly enforce the law and discipline. We will never allow "gaps" or "special zones" to exist. For those who violate party discipline, no matter who they are, they should carry out the discipline, with clear merits, clear rewards and punishments, uphold integrity and fight against evil spirits. Likewise, those who violate the law, no matter who they are, will be severely punished. We should not only strictly enforce the law, party and government disciplines, but also impose economic sanctions, so as to make people lose their wealth, position and power, so as to effectively warn future generations and put their expectation and desire behind them.

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