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Assignment代写:The world economic crisis

2018-09-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The world economic crisis,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了世界性经济危机。毫无疑问,经济危机是伴随资本主义制度而诞生的。从资本主义生产方式确立统治地位以后,经济危机就成为资本主义制度不可医治的痼疾。近几十年以来,资本主义国家发生了多次影响深远的世界性经济危机,沉重打击了资本主义的生产力。世界性经济危机的爆发具有影响普遍性、强破坏性等特征,其危机的根源在于资本主义的强权理念和崇尚市场自由放任等。

world economic crisis,世界性经济危机,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Economic crisis is the inevitable companion of capitalist system. Since the capitalist mode of production established a dominant position, the economic crisis has become an incurable chronic disease of the capitalist system. Since modern times, the capitalist countries have had many profound global economic crises, which have severely hit the productive forces of capitalism. The outbreak of the world economic crisis has the characteristics of universality, periodicity, uniformity, accumulation and strong destructiveness. The root cause of the crisis lies in the fanatical nature of capitalism, the concept of power, advocating market laissez-faire, globalization and the promotion of technological innovation.

After the human being entered the capitalist society, the periodic overproduction crisis comes with it. Moreover, the economic crisis that will break out every few years will cause severe damage to the whole social production, severely damaging the original productivity system and even causing the collapse and collapse of the whole world economic system. Especially since the 15th century, with the new air route opened up and the great geographical discovery, the original sealed are gradually break the regional economy, the economic and trade exchanges are increasingly frequent, accelerate the formation of the world economy, the economic crisis can be freely penetration and extension in the economy, any a regional economic fluctuations will quickly spread to the whole economic system, causes the entire capitalist world turmoil. Therefore, the capitalist economic crisis also evolved from the initial outbreak in one country to the simultaneous outbreak in several countries, and eventually affected the entire capitalist world, forming the world economic crisis.

The development of capitalist production promotes the prosperity of capitalist economy and promotes the economic crisis peculiar to capitalism. Economic crisis is the inevitable outcome of the capitalist system. In a nutshell, the economic crisis can be understood in a narrow and broad sense. In the narrow sense, economic crisis refers to overproduction, that is, social production exceeds the demand with the ability to pay; In a broad sense, the economic crisis is not only reflected in the disconnection between production and demand, but also involves various aspects of the economic fields such as credit, debt, energy and trade, and the economic development falls into a long-term stagnation. The economic crisis is the product of the development of the productive forces to a certain historical stage. Global economic crisis is, as it were, the concept of the economic crisis regional restrictions, the process of merging in the world market, the economic crisis break through the limit state, at the same time more capitalist countries appear in the stagnation of production at the same time, the phenomenon such as the recession, and through the world commodity, financial, trade and other ties spread to developing countries and the capitalist countries, the economic crisis shows strong worldwide and interoperability. From the previous analysis, it can be seen that the world economic crisis, as a scientific category, refers to the overproduction crisis sweeping most of the world's capitalist countries. Or, more strictly, the overproduction crisis that has hit several major capitalist countries at once. What needs to be made clear here is that what we call the global economic crisis is, in its essence, a crisis of overproduction, not something else.

Marx and Engels vividly revealed more than a century ago that the economic crisis was a social plague, a grotesque phenomenon, which "seemed like a famine, a general and devastating war, devouring all the means of life in society, as if industry and commerce had been destroyed". The economic crisis is the inevitable result of the capitalist system. Due to the characteristics of capitalism, its outbreak also exists certain inevitability.

The earliest economic crisis can be traced back to the tulip mania in the Netherlands in 1637, which was the first investment bubble in modern financial history. However, it did not take the typical color of capitalism, and the scope of influence was limited, which could not be called the global economic crisis. After a long period of shortage and shortage, the British cotton and textile industry experienced its first surplus crisis in 1788. It is a crisis of excess in one sector that has little impact on the rest. However, with the establishment of the factory system and the development of the big machine industry, the extension of the industrial chain, more and more sectors have emerged in excess crisis. By 1825, the first widespread industrial overproduction crisis in Britain had hit almost every industrial sector in the country.

With the expansion of capitalist power in the world, countries have increasingly closer economic ties. By 1847, the economic crisis that broke out in Britain began to have a wide international influence, and the first international economic crisis appeared. In 1857, the importers and exporters who survived on bad checks and export credit first went bust in large Numbers, followed by bank failures. In Philadelphia, which once competed with New York for the position of national financial center, almost all Banks stopped paying. A run on 62 of New York's 63 Banks halted payments. The discount rate rose to 60% ~ 100%. Shares in the railway company fell by 85% - 87%. The financial crisis quickly spread to Britain and the bank of England raised the discount rate to an unprecedented 10 percent. The total losses from failed Banks and securities amounted to 80 million pounds, while the total losses from the crisis amounted to between 25,000 and 300 million pounds. In Hamburg, Germany's trade hub, exchanges that had flourished under the credit trade were in disarray, with hundreds of Banks and businesses collapsing and the discount rate rising to 12%. The situation in France has eased slightly. Between 1856 and 1858, after the bankruptcy of 12030, the stock of chattel credit fell 64%, the stock of darmstadt credit bank fell by half, and the stock of Orient railway fell by a third. Europe's bankrupt firms have debts of up to $700m. So the first global economic crisis, centred on Britain, came at last with a vengeance.

Marx argues that the economic crisis is essentially an institutional phenomenon, an excess of capitalist production over the effective demand of workers. The most profound cause of the crisis is the basic contradiction of capitalist economy, that is, the contradiction between the sociality of production and the private ownership of the means of production. Capitalism cannot eliminate the root cause of economic crisis, so economic crisis broke out periodically. Economic crises always occur regularly every few years, and they spread more and more widely, with more and more profound effects, and their cycles become shorter and shorter. The cyclical nature of the economic crisis has made capitalist reproduction cyclical, including four stages: crisis, depression, recovery and upsurge. The crisis forced the resolution of the fundamental contradictions of capitalism, and the balance between production and consumption was temporarily restored, laying the groundwork for new growth until the next crisis. The periodic occurrence of economic crisis is an important rule of capitalist reproduction.

The history of capitalism consists of a series of cyclical economic crises, either long or short, large or small. So far, there have been dozens of economic crises in the capitalist world, of which 11 have been major world economic crises with longer duration, greater impact and more serious consequences.

History has shown that capitalism, like other social systems, can overcome its own contradictions in its expansion, but the contradictions it leaves to future generations are more acute. This is in sharp contrast to the stability of previous social systems, but the inherent instability of the capitalist system is at the same time a driving force for its development: the scale of expansion between the two crises was very large. The slow pace of development of the past cannot be compared with it. Within extremely short period of capitalism changed the living conditions of mankind, has led to rapid economic growth, but as a result of this growth is a kind of exponential growth, so it could not be indefinitely extend its prosperity, must periodically through the crisis, depression, recovery and rising stage of development, as a result, the whole process of the development of capitalism crisis occurs.

The world economic crisis is the periodic overproduction crisis that occurred in the capitalist world economic system and mainly attacked the major capitalist countries in the same period. It never stops in the development process of capitalism for more than 500 years, which also makes the world economic crisis present the following characteristics.

Since the first general industrial overproduction crisis in England in 1825, the crisis has erupted every few years like a plague that lurks in the capitalist world. With the growth and prosperity of capitalism and the process of economic globalization, the whole world has been involved in it. From the outbreak of one crisis to the beginning of the next crisis, this period constitutes a cycle of capitalist reproduction, namely the economic cycle, including four different stages of crisis, depression, recovery and upsurge. The global economic crisis has a more irregular cyclical course than a national crisis. In terms of the length of the cycle, it is sometimes more regular, for example, the period before the second world war broke out approximately every 7 to 8 years. Sometimes irregular, as in the period after world war ii, from all phases of the cycle, sometimes crisis, depression, recovery and rising four stages are not obvious, such as 1973-1975 after a major crisis, only little over 4 years and then broke out in 1980-1982 world economic crisis, make cycle shortened sharply, crisis ensued. Of course, what I'm talking about here is the cyclical nature of the global economic crisis, not the fact that it will occur on a regular basis, but the inevitability and transience of the crisis.

The development of capitalist production promotes the prosperity of capitalist economy and promotes the economic crisis peculiar to capitalism. The most profound cause of the crisis is the basic contradiction of capitalist economy, that is, the contradiction between the sociality of production and the private ownership of the means of production. Capitalism cannot eliminate the root cause of economic crisis, so economic crisis broke out periodically. Although the scientific and technological revolution, the development of monopolistic organizations and various anti-crisis policies and measures of state-monopolized capitalism since the second world war can temporarily alleviate or interrupt the process of economic crisis and turn the crisis into a turning point, it is carried out on the premise of not changing the capitalist system. This is like drinking poison to quench thirst, we must not create any illusion and fantasy. The negative effects of these anti-crisis factors accumulated over time and created conditions for the deepening of capitalist contradictions. When these contradictions grew to a certain extent, they inevitably led to the outbreak of a new economic crisis, and the basic contradictions of capitalism continued to develop in the ups and downs. It is in this cycle of economic cycles that the capitalist world stumbles forward at a pace full of contradictions. There is no doubt that the economic crisis has survived with the capitalist system. No matter how many new features emerged in the post-world war ii economic crisis and how the capitalist economy was given blood and air, it could not get rid of the contradictions and disasters it brought to the world.

The increasingly fierce international financial crisis has gradually evolved into a global economic crisis, which is transmitted from developed countries to emerging market countries, and spread from the financial sector to the real economy, bringing the world economy into a "downturn". There are many reasons for the outbreak of the crisis, such as excessive consumption, monetary policy mistakes, financial derivatives abuse, excessive financial innovation, and weak government regulation. But, to sum up, these factors are not isolated or accidental, but are closely interrelated. The global crisis is the result of the deepening and concentrated outbreak of the basic contradictions of capitalist economy.

China, as an important part of the world economy, is not immune to the crisis. How should we respond to this once-in-a-century crisis and achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects? In this regard, we should take solid and effective concrete measures, such as carefully judging the domestic and international economic situation, taking into account national conditions, adopting effective plans to participate in international financial rescue, as far as possible to reduce the extent of the decline of the real economy, alleviate social concerns about future economic development and improve market confidence. More want to have a long-term and comprehensive strategic choice, establish real domestic demand as the leading mode of economic growth, and establish a sound socialist market economic system, and according to the requirements of the real change and timely adjustment and innovation of China's development pattern and development path, to endow them with new vitality and creativity, the serious crisis into motivation and the opportunity of development, to improve China's international competitiveness, realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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