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Assignment代写:Electronic money

2018-09-20 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Electronic money,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了电子货币。电子货币是一种储蓄或预付价值的支付机制,通过销售终端进行支付,也可以在两个储蓄设备之间直接转移价值,或通过开放的计算机网络转移价值。电子货币是现代信息技术的必然产物,因此电子货币与网络技术有着密切的联系。

Electronic money,电子货币,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

With the continuous progress of science and technology, electronic currency is generated in order to adapt to the increasingly rapid pace of life and save more time, so as to make online transactions rapidly popular. The use of electronic currency transactions will inevitably face a variety of risks, strengthening the security of online transactions has become a pressing issue.

The emergence and use of electronic money marked the development of the information age, but some criminals used this fast-paced means to conduct illegal activities. To truly manage our electronic currency effectively and make the Internet more functional and operational is already a problem we must face.

E-payment exists everywhere in today's society. Websites such as taobao, dangdang and amazon are using alipay and online banking to conduct transactions. "Money is a common property that is fixed and ACTS as the medium of exchange. The primary function of money is to measure the value of the property that each market subject USES to trade."

Eu payment system working group to Europe in May 1994, the monetary authorities to submit the prepaid value according to the report: "it is a kind of the recent emergence of the new payment tool, called the multi-purpose card or" electronic wallet ", it is a true real purchasing power of the plastic card, in order to get the card, consumers must pay in advance of its value." "The term 'electronic currency' is used in different contexts to describe a wide range of payment tools and technologies," according to the August 1996 e-currency security report. A similar definition is used in the Basel committee. In the risk management of e-money business issued in March 1998, e-money is known as a "payment mechanism for savings or prepaid value, which is paid through sales terminals and can be transferred directly between two savings devices, or through an open computer network. It consists of two types: card based and electronic money based on software or computers.

Therefore, different countries have different ideas about electronic money. Generally speaking, money is a means of payment between transactions.

Electronic money is the inevitable outcome of modern information technology. Therefore, electronic money is closely related to modern electronic information technology. The basic features of electronic money are the multi-functionalization, pure instrumentalization, informatization, networking and the security and efficiency of information technology. These features are mainly:

Electronic money is produced and developed on the basis of electronic information technology and network technology. Therefore, the characteristics of electronic money are closely related to information technology and network. It can be said that electronic money is a kind of network information resource. Just like traditional money is a special commodity separated from commodities, electronic money is a special currency and special information separated from currencies. That is, it is safer than traditional currencies, because it requires more to store, carry and pay than traditional currencies, and it adds a lot of more efficient technical content. Electronic money makes money to fulfill its function of the efficiency of almost a perfect realm: from the point of view of the issue and management of cash, monetary authorities issued from the whole process of cash to raise cash, don't have to take the traditional design, printing and transportation tools, but should be directly on the network to realize the issue of cash and drained. In this way, problems such as high cost, counterfeit, safety and supply of cash can be avoided. Electronic money makes the financial supervision implemented by the central bank more convenient and fast. Electronic money makes monetary policy more effective for central Banks. Electronic money makes the entire financial system more efficient; Electronic money makes markets work efficiently.

The risk of subject mainly includes the risk of issuing subject, the risk of media subject and the risk of using subject. Different from traditional currency, the issuing subject of traditional currency is specific, while in electronic currency, due to the diversification between Banks, it has certain risks. In addition to customers, online Banks and other issuing entities, there are many related parties such as fund transfer system operators, communication line providers, computer manufacturers and software developers. It is difficult to determine the legal responsibilities of all parties if there is some failure to allocate funds accurately. In the media, traditional money is tangible, such as paper money, metal money and so on. Electronic currency is composed of a series of procedures and chips, and the transactions of the transferor are formed virtually without any visible traces indicating the existence of the transactions. For users, traditional money can test real money, including its authenticity, the amount of its face value, etc. For users of electronic money, their functions can be learned about the completion of transactions through the network, and they cannot control the real concept of money.

For the electronic currency of non-financial institutions, the electronic currency business is still in a regulatory vacuum, and its business is not under access management. In this case, the issuing body absorbs a large amount of prepaid funds from the public. This operation mode of "receiving payment first and providing goods later" is easy to form the case that the default benefit is greater than the cost of default, thus causing credit risk. For the credit card, due to the lack of credit constraints, if some people use false proof, forged identity documents, guarantee materials, etc. to cheat the bank credit, or the cardholder maliciously overdraft, refuses to perform obligations or evades the performance obligations, which constitutes the credit risk of electronic currency. Errors, malfeasance and fraud caused by reasons other than the issuing entity or customer of the electronic currency will also force the issuing entity to bear the credit risk. For example, in the process of providing electronic services, communication may be interrupted due to various reasons such as power terminal and network congestion. If it is not possible to undo and back up the unfinished operation, it is easy to cause data errors, thus affecting the credibility of the issuing body of electronic currency.

Environmental risk refers to the risk caused by the operating environment of network Banks, mainly including the following two aspects:

Artificial risks, such as hacking into network systems; Unauthorized third party intercepts confidential customer information; The virus invades the electronic banking system and intentionally destroys the relevant data of the bank. Forging, altering, or duplicating electronic currency, etc.

Identify authorized risks, such as falsifying certificates issued by Banks, to defraud customers.

Money laundering exists under the traditional currency, but there are a lot of obstacles under the traditional currency. Due to some necessary features, such as legal currency, securities currency, and strict transaction requirements in the transaction, criminals conduct money laundering through invisible means. Money laundering, in essence, is the act of transforming illegal income, especially money property, into legal property in form, especially money property, through certain channels. Due to its certain characteristics, electronic money becomes more convenient to launder money online. Electronic money is a kind of network currency, which is not strictly monitored by users. In modern life, because of the increase of international trade, it is impossible to have a monitoring room for the network when international cooperation is not completely reasonable. This kind of monitoring provides a barrier to cooperation for the benefit of each country and the secrecy of each country, which makes electronic money a loophole for money laundering.

The legal system of electronic currency should be constantly improved to prevent risks caused by new practices in terms of the specific authorization, privacy protection and the definition of rights and obligations arising from the operation of electronic currency. The issuing body of electronic money is clarified through legislation. The issuing body of an electronic currency must meet certain conditions, such as prior approval and minimum capital requirements. Control the risk of electronic currency from the source by restricting the access conditions of issuing bodies.

Establish a good credit evaluation system. Before customers participate in the electronic currency system, make necessary investigation on their property, reputation and other aspects, and make good analysis and prediction of customers' credit and capital status. At the same time, the customer's digital certificate is verified and backed up, which is used to verify the customer's digital signature in future transactions, so as to reduce the possibility of credit risk.

Check the hardware and software capacity regularly. In the process of system operation, it is necessary to carry out the first test, strengthen the report of virus detection and detection and repair, and summarize the development plan afterwards. Plan for unexpected events, such as system interruptions, to be promptly communicated to customers, and to develop system fixes. Implement the online monitoring system of virus detection and internal system security measures, and regularly maintain the information accumulated in the central database.

Apart from financial institutions such as Banks, they should also include non-bank e-currency issuers and Internet service providers, and urge them to fulfill their anti-money laundering obligations and crack down on the use of e-money.

Banks and related departments should carry out publicity activities on security precautions, such as firewall, password management, encryption technology, reasonable authorization of terminal users, etc., to inform customers of the importance of protecting their information security in unsafe electronic transactions. Conduct legal publicity on electronic banking, make the public understand some relevant laws and regulations in the use of electronic currency, improve people's legal awareness, and reduce the risk caused by some malicious ACTS.

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