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Assignment代写:China-Australia International Education Service

2017-12-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- China-Australia International Education Service,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中澳国际教育服务。服务贸易的教育服务是一个重要的领域。国际间教育服务贸易主要以经济为目的的教育投入和产出是教育的国际化和国际服务贸易的结合。与中国相比,有着保护教育贸易的澳大利亚无疑更有优势,其已经形成了一套完整的科学教学体系认证体系,旨在为澳大利亚职业教育培训和高等教育提供激励机制的基础。

International Education,服务贸易,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

Educational services of trade in services trade is an important area. International trade in educational services between countries is mainly for economic purposes of education input and output is the internationalization of education and the combination of international trade in services. International education become truly industries and new economic growth. International trade in educational services for the development of requirements there are a lot of room for improvement. Readjustlnents does not already have one on international trade in educational services general laws, quite a few areas of the law is in a clean state, existing laws and regulations is not systematic, many laws and regulations do not meet the international free trade rules and practices, a number of traditional laws and regulations into an international trade in educational services carried out by the astriction, some of the legal provisions regulating the trade in educational services, lack of effective enough.

Need has not yet been issued for meeting the constraints do not have in place. All of these have become China's universities' development international trade in educational services for it from the side reflects our country's international trade in educational services undeveloped legislation. Australia is a bigpower of mines and agriculture is a very competitive services. Australia is a bigpower of mines and agriculture is a very competitive services. Correct understanding and analysis of the Australia international trade in educational services international competitiveness, helps us to accurately assess Australia service trade structure and its strengths and weaknesses, find a Australia Chinese enterprises in the services market are likely to get business opportunities, development of international trade in educational services to respond to the increasing market competition, the international education for China's national interests, is worthy of further research.

I. Introduction

China after 30 years of reform and opening up education has also made remarkable achievements in college school conditions have been greatly improved, the school standards have improved accordingly. But compared with some education in developed countries, the overall educational level of our colleges and universities is not high. The quality of education services products directly determine the competitiveness of trade in education services. The world students are mainly concentrated in the well-known universities of education in developed countries, mainly because these institutions could provide high-quality educational products. The United States is a country to attract foreign students up to a long time, its level of development of higher education in the world, is recognized as the world education is the most developed countries, the quality of educational services is to expand the international education market by virtue of the advantage. The quality of education in the UK has a world-class universities such as Oxford, Cambridge in the world renowned, so even with the expensive fees, and education in the UK is still attractive to foreign students. Of higher education content and curriculum system, although several reform, but the content is outdated, irrational structure, personnel training mode backwardness still exists. In nature, science, or in the field of humanities, compared with developed countries, there are still a considerable gap between our higher education is the lack of internationally recognized quality standards, the quality of teaching in many colleges and universities are not recognized. The lack of a strong education brand. As a result, our colleges and universities to attract students at a disadvantage. Accession to WTO, the cross-border allocation of educational resources is increasingly strengthened, more and more foreign educational institutions to enter China. Faced with the advantages of foreign educational institutions, we lack the strength to contend with. Due to cross-border consumption, a large number of Chinese students poured out of the country, across the oceans to a foreign school, resulting in the outflow of huge going abroad for education funding and a lot of talent, to some extent, restricted the development of education in our country, and indirectly affect the development of the national economy as a whole.

The effective conduct of trade in education services can not do without the support of the relevant market. The development of education, international trade in education services in an orderly manner, management is the key. At present, the level of the overall management of our colleges and universities is relatively low, high levels of education management personnel familiar with the WTO rules is scarce, which makes the competitiveness of our universities is greatly reduced in the international arena. Study abroad intermediary market is very irregular, many employees abroad intermediaries and the quality is generally not high, and focus only on immediate interests, the lack of long-term vision and the overall planning, harmed consumers interests instances have occurred. Education agents in China are basically to study abroad service intermediary, not a professional engaged in the introduction of foreign students, the advantage of China's University of disciplines to foreign intermediary. Therefore, studying the management of the intermediary market to standardize and improve the education market to the healthy development is an important part of China's development of trade in education services. In short, all-round carry out international trade in education services, China also need to make greater efforts in the market building and institutional sound.

Accession to the WTO has brought unprecedented opportunities to accelerate China's colleges and universities to develop international trade in education services. But we need to know the opportunities and challenges co-exist, especially in the field of international trade in education services, with standards of international educational services market, Chinese colleges and universities also faced with severe challenges. Should take advantage of this opportunity of joining the WTO, while prevention education services in developed countries the impact of China's international education services market, actively engaged in international educational services market, a firm foothold in the fierce competition to seize the international educational services market the commanding heights of our country into an international education service trade power by the international education services trading power.

Second, the literature review

(A) the theoretical basis of the international education services in China

1, the concept of international trade in education services

International trade in education services is the input and output of education services between countries mainly for economic purposes. Education services to commercial and market-oriented educational activities between both sides to provide and receive educational services exist in different countries (regions) constitute the international trade in education services.

2.the theoretical basis of the international education services in China

China's international trade in education services legislation in recent years have been greatly improved, and promulgated the "Sino-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools" and the "Implementation Measures", "colleges and universities to go outside the school Interim Measures for the" laws and regulations and to clean up their own expense overseas study service intermediaries Management Regulations "and" Rules ", colleges and universities to receive students regulations, regulations on Chinese government scholarships," Sino-foreign cooperative organized by the Educational Testing Interim Provisions "," run the schools for children of foreign personnel Interim Measures laws and regulations concerning foreign education.

Education services as part of the trade in services, subject to the terms and conditions relating to the GATS. International trade in education services under the GATS framework, including primary education, secondary education, higher education, adult education and other educational five categories, mainly through cross-border supply, consumption abroad, commercial presence, movement of natural persons in four ways. GATS requires member states to the specific sub-sectors according to their national circumstances choose to open trade in services schedules of specific commitments and schedules of commitments are generally composed of two parts by the horizontal commitments and sector-specific commitments. The level of commitment applies to all sectors, including education services, including the Schedules. Specific commitments is the commitment to sector-specific departments, open market access and national treatment conditions and restrictions, the four services trade the way clear commitments in specific areas.

3.the theoretical development of the China International Education Services

China is still a general law on international trade in education services, a considerable portion of the field of law in a blank state, the unpaired system of existing laws and regulations, many laws and regulations in line with international free trade rules and practices, some of the traditional laws and regulations become fetters of international trade in education services to carry out some of the legal provisions on trade in educational services specification is not enough, the lack of effective binding. The need has not yet issued, the existing constraints in place. All of these have become the bottleneck of the Higher Education Development International Trade in Education Services, which also reflects China's international trade in education services legislation is lagging behind.

China's accession to the WTO, signed the GATS agreement, and promised to open up their trade in education services market will be China's education services have a profound impact. In recent years, China's trade in education services has been rapid growth, but still relatively weak compared with the United States, Britain, Australia and the World Education Services trade power, the open education market will inevitably be affected, which in China is both an opportunity and a challenge. However, from the point of view of development trends, with the rapid development of economic globalization and information technology, trade in education services is bound to greatly expand interaction and cooperation of international education will also be increasing. By the introduction of foreign high-quality educational resources, we should learn from foreign advanced education and management experience, and deepen the education system, accelerate the shortage of qualified personnel for its own culture, to promote the development of trade in education services.

Therefore, the combination of China's trade in education services and legislative practice, legal issues on the rules of trade in education services under the basic framework of the GATS and our education service trade study has important theoretical and practical significance.

(B) domestic and international research profile

A. Foreign research summarized

International trade, including trade in goods and services trade, the traditional international trade theory is built on the basis of trade in goods. Therefore, the traditional comparative advantage principle is applicable to the interpretation of international trade in services, the theoretical circles there is a dispute. Foreign roughly three perspectives:

That the traditional theory of comparative advantage in trade in services. R Dick and H. Dick, factor endowments as the base

Basis, the use of "revealed comparative advantage of France" (RCA) to analyze the trade in services. Through inter-departmental data of 18 OECD countries, regression analysis, the results failed to find the pattern of trade based on comparative advantage. Dick This conclusion can be attributed in part to the existence of non-tariff barriers, but also may be due to the factor endowments in the role of trade in services is indeed obvious. Hill Simpson and Sinai Pu, compared to the same goods, the services have different characteristics, such as intangibility, simultaneity of production and consumption can not be stored or perishability and heterogeneity. Simultaneity of production and consumption, trade in services usually require service providers and recipients of physical proximity, and thus must give up this basic assumption of the factors of production between countries can not flow ", the HO theory in the flawed interpretation of trade in services.

The famous Harvard University economist Richard Cooper (1988), represented by scholars insist that the traditional theory of comparative advantage is universally valid. They believe that the theory of comparative advantage based on a simple proposition, namely, the common interests of each trade are concerned comes from to make itself more efficient behavior, the above proposition is always effective.

Some scholars believe that the principle of the traditional comparative advantage is not fully applicable to international trade in services, the need for appropriate amendments. Deere Dov from the comparative advantage of the limitations applicable to trade in services start with the standard HO model, by changing the individual constraints, the first to successfully explain how trade in services follow the principle of comparative advantage. Burgers simply to make a simple amendment to the standard HOS model, you can get a general model to explain trade in services, which reveals how the different countries and Services technical differences to form a comparative advantage and trade in services mode.

View of the above three, a third view acquired more recognition. Trade in education services to a large extent with the general characteristics of trade in services, so the above analysis of its equally applicable. Countries conducting trade in education services, must also follow the principle of comparative advantage to select the favorable pattern of trade.

Two. Domestic research profile

International trade in education services in China began in the implementation of the reform and opening up policy in recent years, the rapid development of China's international trade in education services, compared with other major developed countries, has a fairly large gap, there is a national policy, competitiveness and education funding issues. Compared with some education in developed countries, the overall educational level of our colleges and universities are not high. The quality of education services products directly determine the competitiveness of trade in education services. The world students are mainly concentrated in the well-known universities of education in developed countries, mainly because these institutions could provide high-quality educational products. The United States is a country to attract foreign students up to a long time, its level of development of higher education in the world, is recognized as the world education is the most developed countries, the quality of educational services is to expand the international education market by virtue of the advantage.

The quality of education in the UK has a world-class universities such as Oxford, Cambridge in the world renowned, so even with the expensive fees, and education in the UK is still attractive to foreign students. Of higher education content and curriculum system, although several reform, but the content is outdated, irrational structure, personnel training mode backwardness still exists. Both in the natural sciences in the field of humanities, compared with developed countries, there are still a considerable gap between our higher education is the lack of internationally recognized quality standards, the quality of teaching in many colleges and universities are not recognized, the lack of strong strong education brand. As a result, our colleges and universities to attract students at a disadvantage. Accession to WTO, the cross-border allocation of educational resources is increasingly strengthened, more and more foreign educational institutions to enter China. Faced with the advantages of foreign educational institutions, we lack the strength to contend with. Due to cross-border consumption, a large number of Chinese students poured out of the country, across the oceans to a foreign school, resulting in the outflow of huge going abroad for education funding and a lot of talent, to some extent, restricted the development of education in our country, and indirectly affect the development of the national economy as a whole.

(C) Summary

The effective conduct of trade in education services can not do without the support of the relevant market. The development of education, international trade in education services in an orderly manner, management is the key. At present, the level of the overall management of our colleges and universities is relatively low, high levels of education management personnel familiar with the WTO rules is scarce, which makes the competitiveness of our universities is greatly reduced in the international arena. Therefore, a full range of carrying out international trade in education services, China also need to make greater efforts in the market building and institutional sound. In short, WTO accession has brought unprecedented opportunities to accelerate China's colleges and universities to develop international trade in education services. But

We need to know the opportunities and challenges co-exist, especially in the field of international trade in education services, with standards of international educational services market, Chinese colleges and universities also faced with severe challenges. Should take advantage of this opportunity of joining the WTO, while prevention education services in developed countries the impact of China's international education services market, actively engaged in international educational services market, a firm foothold in the fierce competition to seize the international educational services market the commanding heights of our country into an international education service trade power by the international education services trading power.

Third, the current overall pattern of world trade in services

The global economy since 2003 after a full recovery very active in the real growth rate of more than 4 percent for four consecutive years, expected 2007 growth will be faster than previously expected, the growth rate will reach 5.2 percent. With the continued strong expansion of the global economy, strong demand in the international market greatly contributed to the development of world trade, world trade growth faster than world economic growth, more powerful, as an important part of the international trade in recent years, the World Service Trade Development presents some new changes.

In the 1970s, world trade in services and trade in goods exports maintained a rapid growth and the growth rate is roughly flat in the 1980s the average growth rate of world trade in services exports more than the factory trade in goods, world trade in services export growth in the 1990s was the trend of volatility decline. The new century, world trade in services as a whole to maintain a rapid growth in world trade in services exports an average annual increase of 10%, while world trade in goods exports an average annual increase of 11%, both basic to keep pace with growth.

The developed countries have a strong economic strength, technological level, and thus they are in finance, information technology, advertising and consulting have broad prospects for the emerging knowledge-intensive modern service industry maintained a clear advantage. The WTO data show that the world trading power in developed countries are the top ten in the world services exports in 2006 (ranked 8) In addition to China and India (ranked 10), all developed countries, including the U.S., UK and Germany is the top three countries of the world trade in services.

Compared with trade in goods, developing countries in world trade in services in a more disadvantageous position. Therefore, trade in services in developing countries rely mainly on traditional service industries such as tourism, transportation, and it has certain advantages of the services sector is labor-intensive projects, such as the export of labor services, construction contracting, and some travel services. Such as: financial services in Hong Kong, China, Singapore; South Korean construction services; Indian computer software services; Hong Kong, China, Panama, transport services; Egypt and other countries and regions, tourism services, such as more prominent. In recent years, with the development of service outsourcing trade in services in developing countries has increased the investment in the communications, computer and information services, to explore the locational advantages, the advantages in human resources and policy advantages. Actively undertake the outsourcing of the developed countries. China, India, Philippines, Mexico, Brazil and other countries has gradually become a regional or global the Bian service outsourcing center.

The level of development of trade in services of different groups of developing countries there are significant differences. 2006, into the world trade in services exports of the top 30 developing countries and regions are China, India, Hong Kong, China, Singapore, South Korea, Russia, China Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and Malaysia, which together accounted for world trade in services exports 17.3%. In recent years, rapid development of trade in services in China, expanding the scale of trade, rising international status, China's ranking in world trade in services exports by 2000, 12, rose to 10 in 2002, 2003 and rose to 9, has been living in developing countries first, 2006, more than the Netherlands column first in the world 8. China's ranking in world trade in services imports rose from 10 in 2000 to 8 in 2002, column 7 in the world in 2005 and 2006. But the development of China's service trade with the United States and other developed countries, in the absolute amount there is a big gap.

Trade in services is a sign of the progress of modern industry, the strategic role played by economic development, more and more national attention to the countries around the world to formulate development strategies, to accelerate the development of trade in services will continue to accelerate the development of trade in services,

Enhance the competitiveness of trade in services as an important measure to improve their international trade status, and improve economic efficiency, to enhance international economic position, some countries have also set up specialized agencies to manage and promote their trade in services. The pattern of interests of the world trade in services is expected to be re-formed in the parties to the game.

In the next few years, world trade in services will continue to maintain rapid growth, such as finance, insurance, tourism and consulting services and information electronics industry and other technology-intensive industries is the international industrial shift key areas; world merchandise trade growth trend will be directly pull its closely related services such as transport, insurance and trade sector trade rapid growth; global transnational direct investment in services sector occupies a dominant position in the plant a strong driving force for the development of trade in services. In addition, the development of technology, outsourcing, the rise of the new trade will be the development of world trade in services contribute to the gradual reduction of global and regional barriers to trade in services also will be the development of world trade in services provide a good environment.

Fourth, the advantages of international trade in education services

(A) market advantage

China has the world's largest education services market. After decades of hard work, China has achieved the compulsory education basically universal and two historic leap into the higher education popularization stage. In the supply of education services, China has established a system of good quality, rigorous education, the education system strong, the supply of education services development capabilities.

In 2004, the national high school education students in 3648.98 million, more than 20 million higher education students in private education students in 1768.38 million. In 2004, China's high school gross enrollment rate of 48.1% higher education gross enrollment rate of 19% is also enormous potential education market. 2005, to achieve the "two basic" population coverage reached 95%. National high school education (including the rapid development of high school, vocational high schools, specialized secondary schools, technical schools, adult high school, adult secondary specialized schools). 31,532 Total schools of high school education, an increase of 125 more than last year; enrollment 1533.39 million, an increase of 145.68 people than last year; students in 4030.95 million, an increase of 381.97 million over the previous year, high school gross enrollment rate of 52.7%. National Adult High School 974, 19 more than last year; 21.81 million students, an increase of 2.44 million over the previous year. Continued development of private education. 2005, there were all levels of the various types of private schools (educational institutions) 86 200 (excluding 29,000 private training institutions), all kinds of school students up to 2168.1 million. In addition, there are 29,048 private training institutions, 8.895 million people received training. The end of 2008, college graduates nationwide will have one million, while the scale of the college graduates in 2009 reached 611 million.

(B) the product advantages.

The end of the transition period our country has been added to the WTO and in the "Eleventh Five-Year" period, full integration into the world economy in all aspects of finance, trade, investment, driven by new technological revolution, developed industrial structure adjustment and industrial shift. China advances in the rapid development of the rapid expansion of international influence, profound and traditional culture, the emerging disciplines of the traditional disciplines of the Chinese, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese philosophy, Chinese history, Chinese opera and Chinese law, China, finance, and more and more favored by the world. Today, more than 700 Chinese and English to become the world's most populous language, more than 95 percent of the university in Japan to the Chinese as the most important second language, the United States to the Chinese as a Foreign Language University, France in recent years, HSK (HSK), the number of candidates to increase the speed of 60% per year. China's provision and development of Chinese language teaching service trade, and a unique endowment and cost advantages.

(C) cost advantage.

China's colleges and universities per student operating costs is maintained at about 12 000, U.S. colleges and universities only student recurrent expenditure of a $ 18,383. (1995-1996), China's more than 10 times. Student cost structure, the wages of the teacher factor is the main part. "Guangming Daily" (September 10, 2002) reported that the average wage of the college staff in China in 2001 was 18,054 yuan, while the American Universities (2002), the National Teachers' average salary of more than 60,000 U.S. dollars, about 27 times that of China . Secondary vocational education funding projections, the forecast base to determine the more conservative. Even so, China's secondary vocational students still bear most of the regular education funding. By 2020, China's overall national strength will be among the top three of the world, ability is also necessary to assume the post this in social, occupational, the civilian nature of a strong investment in education and responsibility, and gradually reached on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention "various forms of secondary education, including technical and vocational secondary education, by all appropriate parties

Method, generally available and accessible to all, especially the progressive introduction of free "requirements. This will greatly reduce the cost of college students student running.

Five, in the international education service trade development

(A) low degree of international recognition of academic degrees

Low degree of international recognition of academic degrees of higher education, which restricts exports of China's international education services, is also the main reason for China's education services trade deficit remains high. After joining the WTO, our government has with more than 20 countries and regions, signed the agreement on mutual recognition of higher education qualifications and degrees, but there are still many countries and regions do not recognize the qualifications and degrees of higher education in China.

China's higher education at the same time improve their own quality and attractiveness, but also actively expand the international recognition of qualifications and degrees. We should also learn from the experience of the United States for foreign students to create a variety of opportunities for employment in China, to further stimulate the study requirements.

(B) the education market system is set-up

Due to the lack of property rights system and the mechanism of competition, under the condition of education in a seller's market, educational services providers neither the power nor the pressure to improve efficiency and quality, this is the lack of basic education services in China inefficient and supply of quality education reasons. Moreover, since the higher education institutions may develop their own admission criteria for each international student to successfully enter certain foreign institutions to study only at the government level qualifications to ensure that it is not enough, must also reach the hospital The school's specific admission requirements. Third, the students medical insurance mechanism is imperfect.

These do not benefit from the creation of a good study environment, will also affect the enrollment scale of China's university students. Fourth, China's educational mechanisms are inadequate, the lack of survival of the fittest. Li Xiaoxi of the "2003 China the market economy development report" conclusion: the level of development of the Chinese market economy in 2001 was approximately 69%. This shows that China's market economy is not yet fully mature, is still under development. The government forces are much stronger than market forces, the mechanism of market competition on a school of higher education did not really play a due role in regulating. For example, the quality of school a good school can not get more of the enrollment plan, sponsoring the poor quality of schools did not reduce the enrollment plan.

Due to lack of awareness of market competition, resulting in the subjective arbitrariness of the development of adult higher education, reducing the quality standards and requirements. Some of our disciplines applied disciplines such as construction, machinery, power generation, energy has a relatively high level of discipline development, science and engineering research and development capabilities in developed countries, the gap is gradually narrowing. Compared to many other developing countries have certain comparative advantages, the potential market for overseas education for students in many developing countries, to study in China is more practical and targeted. Therefore, we should strengthen the outreach of such disciplines, to stimulate international demand, expand the scale of the enrollment of international students.

(C) the lack of a strong competitive strength

Since the reform and opening up, China's education has made remarkable achievements in college school conditions have been greatly improved, the school level has also been improved accordingly. Old, the structure is irrational, backward Training Mode remain. Our higher education is currently a lack of able to get an internationally recognized quality standards, the quality of teaching in many colleges and universities are not recognized, the lack of a strong education brand. As a result, our colleges and universities to attract students at a disadvantage. Compared with some education in developed countries, the overall educational level of our colleges and universities are not high. The quality of education services products directly determine the competitiveness of trade in education services. The world students are mainly concentrated in the well-known universities of education in developed countries, mainly because these institutions could provide high-quality educational products. To attract foreign students most countries, the United States is a long time the development of higher education in the world, is recognized as the most developed countries of the world of education, the UK has a world-class universities such as Oxford, Cambridge, even with expensive fees, the United Kingdom education students are still attractive.

Accession to WTO, the cross-border allocation of educational resources is increasingly strengthened, more and more foreign educational institutions to enter China. The advantages of foreign educational institutions, the lack of countervailing strength, high levels of education management personnel familiar with the WTO rules is scarce, which greatly reduced on the international competitiveness of our colleges and universities. Study abroad intermediary market is very irregular,

Many employees abroad intermediaries and the quality is generally not high, and focus only on the immediate, the lack of long-term vision and the overall planning and harmed consumers interests instances have occurred. Education agents in China are basically to study abroad service intermediary, not a professional engaged in the introduction of foreign students, the advantage of China's University of disciplines to foreign intermediary. Therefore, studying the management of the intermediary market to standardize and improve the education market to the healthy development is an important part of China's development of trade in education services.

Sixth, China's foreign trade in services open coping strategies

(A) the creation of diversified cultural atmosphere

Trade in services is becoming increasingly important in international trade, the status of trade in education services is growing rapidly around the world are increasingly concerned about the education and trade development. International trade in education services is a sharp growth in some developed countries, international education has become an important sector of their country of trade in services, international education has become a veritable industry and new economic growth point. Therefore, China must be extensive national exchanges and cooperation with foreign educational institutions, schools, school, and actively introduce foreign advanced materials, advanced teaching methods and management methods, to truly improve the international recognition of China's education.

Different historical, geographical, political and economic systems in various countries, each country formed the cultural traditions of various styles. Multiculturalism is the future development trend, "but different" multiculturalism must take a road.

For example: Australia is a nation of immigrants, so the culture was diversified, almost the world culture can be found in this country. Japanese cuisine, traditional Japanese goods, the Japanese tea ceremony, Japanese paintings and Japanese clothing and so on, to attract a lot of laid-back Australians join in the fun. Melbourne Japanese is dressed up to go to participate. Can be seen everywhere wearing a kimono Japanese woman in Melbourne to form a colorful landscape in late autumn.

We want to develop international education, States must face the cultural differences of the various ethnic groups, inclusive, be tolerant to diversity-minded and want to take the initiative to accept the culture and civilization of the world, to avoid weaknesses in the top of the tone of traditional Chinese culture, play to our strengths students of all ethnic groups in the world, the creation of a multicultural atmosphere here and appreciate each other, learn from each other to provide convenient, it also highlights the openness of China's educational development process.

(B) Develop and implement education development plan of foreign students

Ministry of Education, the University raised the proportion of foreign students, the state key construction requirements of the key universities to take effective measures and means to constantly improve the management, to make it more scientific and standardized, and the formation mechanism more conducive to promoting the development of International Education, vigorously develop foreign language teaching and the various forms of student education at the same time, the focus on recruitment and training of academic degrees, and gradually increase the proportion of students in order to achieve the goal of improve the level and scale. For example, Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University in the form of self-examination admitted students, to ensure the improvement of students quality level.

The school should also broaden the network of contacts. Enrollment and professional characteristics and disciplines advantage of the outstanding schools, and actively establish contacts with foreign universities and professional intermediaries. Use the resources of foreign students at the school, so that their personal experience as a school publicity. In the process of foreign exchange, and actively seek to carry out two-way exchanges with foreign schools, cooperative research, cooperative education and joint training opportunities. In addition, foreign cooperation in running schools, the introduction of well-known international universities to open campuses. Implementation of "going out, bringing in" strategy, to explore the cooperation of colleges and universities with well-known multinational companies, the establishment of high-level students a joint training base.

Government departments should also be synergistic forces, mobilize all social forces to participate in promoting the school to set up the scholarship of university students, to encourage enterprises, the group title to set up a special Scholarship, and the establishment of multi-channel, multi-level the Scholarship supply system. The establishment of government scholarships, to attract outstanding foreign students to study for a degree. Such as the establishment of the Shanghai Magnolia scholarships, friendly city, Shanghai Scholarship (10 per year per city).

(C) Establishment of educational services quality assurance system

Trade in education services is an important area of trade in services, in accordance with the relevant commitments of the WTO accession, the Chinese education market will be gradually liberalized. Challenges, the Chinese educational institutions only rapidly react to establish awareness of the education market, to adopt positive measures to flexible education system, improve the education system to cope with domestic challenges of education needs to compete with foreign educational institutions in order to fully grasp Chinese education market, in the process of opening up and orderly development. We must

To build and improve our higher education quality assurance system in the background of the WTO trade in education services, and gradually improve the government's macro-management functions, to build a wide range of social service agencies to meet the diverse needs of the society, the establishment of specialized research-based academic institutions promote quality assurance system with international standards, and achieve win-win or even win. This can provide a broader perspective of higher education quality assurance system to build and improve.

Seven, the advantages of international trade in education services in Australia

(A) Australia's position in world trade in services

Australia's trade in services in education, tourism and transportation services, driven by continued growth in the past 10 years three times (see Figure 1.1). According to WTO statistics, in 2004, the Australian international trade in services total $ 50.387 billion, with exports of $ 24.774 billion, 25.613 billion U.S. dollars of imports, columns 22 and 25 ranking points in the global trade in services.

Australia is a vibrant services sector overseas investors. 2002/2003, the Australian commercial presence mode of exports of $ 59.4 billion, accounting for 64.6 percent of all trade in services exports; while imports of services, only $ 36.9 billion, both the difference between the $ 22.5 billion. In other words, if the Australian Trade in Services Statistics BOP and the FATs dual caliber, the export surplus reached $ 22 billion, its competitiveness in the international trade in services can not be discounted.

Australia 2007/08 financial exports grew 8.6 percent to $ 234.3 billion, compared with the previous year, the primary products, deep processing of manufactured goods and services exports have increased, but the simple processing of manufactured goods and exports of goods declined slightly. Oil and mineral exports of primary products, significant growth, mainly due to higher iron ore and coal prices and unprocessed food exports growth for the first time since 2003/04 fiscal year, reflecting the phenomenon of Australia's local drought have which reduce the

Australia's major service trade partners, including the United States, Britain, New Zealand, Singapore, and Japan. According to data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002/03, according to the sort exports, Australia's largest export market for U.S. $ 30.9 billion $ 15.2 billion, the United Kingdom, New Zealand A $ 13 billion, Singapore $ 4.6 billion, Japan A $ 3.8 billion, 31 Australian dollars, Hong Kong, China, China $ 2.4 billion, Indonesia $ 2.4 billion. The same year, imports, Australia's largest import market order of $ U.S. 23.1 billion $ 8.4 billion, the United Kingdom, New Zealand $ 6.8 billion, Singapore $ 4.4 billion, $ 3.1 billion of Hong Kong, China, Japan $ 2.5 billion. Germany $ 1.8 billion, China $ 1.7 billion (see Table 1.3).

(B) trade in services between Australia and China

From 1995 to 2004, Australia continued rapid growth in Chinese exports of services increased from $ 385 million to $ 1.3 billion, an increase of 238 percent (see Figure 1.10).

2004-2005, China is Australia's sixth largest trade in services export market, Australia China's service export value of $ 2.311 billion, accounting for 6.3% of market share of Australian exports of services; the same year, China is Australia's eighth largest trade in services imports The origin, imported from China worth $ 1.218 billion; accounting for 3.2% of Australia's total imports of services.

2007-2008, China is Australia's largest bilateral trade partner trade amounted to $ 63.8 billion, accounting for 13.2% of the total trade volume. Japan is Australia's largest export market, with exports amounting to $ 37.4 billion, 16.1 percent of total exports, an increase of 5.3 percent over the previous year. China is Australia's second largest export market, with exports amounting to $ 31.4 billion, an increase of 18.8 percent over the previous year. The United States is Australia's largest source of imports, the imports amounted to $ 33.2 billion, 13.2 percent of total imports, an increase of 0.6 percent over the previous year. China is Australia's second-largest source of imports, and imports amounted to $ 32.4 billion, an increase of 14.4%. Third place in Japan, imports amounted to $ 22.1 billion.

Australian services exports to the world market is a huge tourist services and passenger transportation of goods and services, respectively of its total exports of trade in services was 50% and 23%; In addition, Australia also exports to the world market a range of other services, including education, law, design, accounting, engineering, and medical and other professional services, financial services, transport and infrastructure services, environmental services and telecommunications services, a total of 27%.

Australian trade in services imports of industrial distribution is characterized by: the tourism industry accounted for 36%, accounted for 18% of freight services, passenger and other transport accounted for 16%, other services accounted for 30%. On Australian imports is mainly dominated by traditional services, tourism, transport, two 70% of total imports, is the service sector at a disadvantage.

The sectoral composition of the Australian service sector imports (2003/2004)

Developed the Australian domestic tourism, determine its dominant position in trade in services exports. Show rapid growth momentum since the start of 1994, Macao tourism growth from 1994/95 year $ 1 billion to the 2003/04 of $ 1.71 billion, an average annual growth of 7%. Travel services over the same period as the largest import sector maintained a growth trend, reaching $ 1.02 billion, but the tourism industry over 10 years has been for Australia to create a trade surplus of about $ 5 billion per year.

Passenger and other transport services is the second largest industry in Australia's trade in services. In the 10 years from 1994 to 2004, the department showing the momentum of sustained and stable growth, and has always maintained a trade surplus. However, since 2000, passenger and other transport services trade surplus began to reduce the competitiveness of passenger services in Australia is relatively weakened.

Australia travel services, passenger services, education services have a strong competitive strength; Europe and the United States and other developed

Countries, Australia, in financial services there is no absolute advantage, but because of the large-scale development of tourism and transport, financial and insurance industries, the export surplus. In the cargo transportation services, royalty and license fees and other business services sector at a disadvantage. In professional services, agriculture and mining services, construction services, communications services mediocre.

Australia these disadvantages sector and general sector can naturally become the focus of China's enterprises to develop industry, but in terms of the scale of the existing services market in Australia, or the viewpoint of development, Australia's rapidly developing tourism, education and other advantages of the service sector derived The number of new business opportunities, still worthy of special attention to China's enterprises.

The pros and cons of international cooperation in education in Australia

China's trade in services have made considerable progress since the 1980s, the continuous expansion of foreign contracted projects, labor care cooperation, international cooperation and exchanges, in addition to traditional industries, such as international tourism, commerce, catering and other developments finance, insurance, telecommunications, communications and other emerging industries also developed rapidly. China has replaced the United States in 2003, becoming the world to attract foreign direct investment countries in the coming years, China has attracted foreign investment growth trend will continue. China between 2000 and 2002, average inflows of FDI in services of $ 12.805 billion, in 2002 the stock of $ 259.7 billion; accounted for 24.7 percent of 2002 FDI inflow in service sector, accounting for 31.4% of the total stock; will perform WTO commitments to further liberalization of services, so there is great potential to attract more FDI in Service Sector. The services sector in the national economy in the developed countries in Europe and the United States accounted for about 60% to 70%, but less than 40%.

Information technology has brought changes in the structure of the international service market, converted from the traditional labor-intensive services market to the contemporary technology-intensive services market. Like the professional line technical services, information services, banking and insurance services, modern health and education services, has constituted the main content of the contemporary service economy, and gradually over to human services based on the traditional low-capital-intensive and low production growth become the protagonist of modern economic development. Chinese labor costs low but poor technical quality, and more engaged in labor-intensive services, high labor costs in developed countries, is engaged in knowledge and technology-intensive services, the creation of high value. Therefore, we must improve the quality of workers.

China more stringent restrictions on market access for construction, communications, finance, insurance and other fields. For example, in construction engineering services, the business scope of foreign participation is limited to: all the construction projects of foreign investment or foreign grant projects funded by international financial institutions, foreign investment of more than 50% of the project and the Chinese construction enterprises can not be independently due to technical difficulties items (foreign investment may be less than 50%), full investment by the Chinese but the Chinese construction enterprises is difficult to independently project.

In contrast, Australia and the protection of education trade as the key to successfully promote international trade in education services, has formed a complete set of scientific teaching system certification system aimed at providing incentives for the Australian vocational education and training and higher education the basis of post-secondary educational institutions and certification bodies body open registration. The 1997 agreement signed by the Australian Bureau of foreign aid and Australian universities, to ensure high-quality educational services for graduate students coming to Australia from overseas. 2000 also established for the promotion of university teaching and to improve the quality of teaching, the University Teaching Committee. The Australian federal government to strengthen the quality of educational services provided by the legislation, management of domestic and foreign. English-speaking countries, multi-cultural blend of Australia even more advantages, in addition, the beautiful natural environment, social stability and bright, and the people attracted to overseas scholars and students, an avalanche of learning and further education.

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