2017-01-05 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文
In this report, the researcher will make two exercises at first, Federal Budget Challenge and California Budget Challenge and then make an analysis about their results and analyze their similarities and differences between the national and state level, the thinking of budget policies and its suitability.
2. the simple description of current situations of the federal budget supported by the data
The money mainly came from tax expenditures and taxes almost spent on social security, medicare and health care, affordable care act, defense and security and other spendings.
According to the data, the budget has shown that first, America’s GDP growth has maintained a relatively stable situation and it has gradually speed up after 2012. Second, the difference between the federal government spending and income is gradually narrowing. And budget deficits has reduced year by year. It may maintain the scale of about $0.7 trillion after the fiscal year 2014. Third, public debt and net financial assets debt continue to rise, which is almost synchronous with GDP growth.
3. the choice of revenue
Compared to the popular choices, and the status quo, the researcher will raise the tax expenditures, including $453 B in imposing a surtax of 5.6% on income earned over $1 million, $633 B in gradually eliminating tax-free employer contributions for health care and $219 B in allowing charity deductions only if one gives more than 2% of Adjusted Gross Income. In addition, for the tax reform, the researcher will raise $1300 B to engage in revenue increasing comprehensive tax reform. Three new brackets go up by 2% each, to 10%, 16%, and 26%.
4. the targeted budget policies and their balance
For the social security, the researcher has cut $120 B to raise the full retirement age of Social Security gradually, from age 67 to age 70, by the year 2035 and cut $457 B to increase the maximum taxable earnings cap. For the medicare and health care, the researcher has cut $275 B to limit punitive damages in malpractice lawsuits and impose a federal statute of limitations and raise medicare eligibility age gradually. In addition, the researcher will cut some costs in general government, overall spending levels, war spending estimates, as well as defense and security.
5. collection of information and analysis of the federal budget challenge.In the exercise, upon finishing the Federal Budget Challenge, the total deficit reduction is $6.1 T and the researcher finished with a $0.9 Trillion Deficit.
And the total spending reduction is $3323.9 B, which includes social security cutting $577.0 B, medicare and health care cutting $275.0 B, defense and security cutting $58.0 B, war spending estimates cutting $852.0 B, overall spending levels cutting $673.0 B, general government cutting $110.0 B, interest adjustment cutting $794.0 B, as well as investments spend $15.0 B.
And the total revenue increase is $2763.0 B, which includes tax expenditures raising $1305.0 B, tax reform $1300.0 B as well as other revenue raising $158.0 B.
6. the political comprises about the budget balance.
In order to change or even to maintain current federal budget priorities, the political leader can make such kind of political compromises as follows: first, creating jobs. the budget proposal will be a a great motivation for creating jobs, which can make a swift return for economy. It includes extending the payroll tax cuts and unemployment benefits; increasing investments for building roads; increasing the employment in the short term; increasing investments to update and modernize the schools. Second, increase investments in infrastructure and encourage innovation. The United States can increase investments in the ground extension of the transportation system, including establishing between urban rail transit, and creating a national infrastructure bank, to provide financing for infrastructure projects.
In addition to this, implementing tax reform and cutting spending for a long time, increasing tax incomes, will be also the important aspects for changing the current federal budget priorities.