代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

Is Military Power the Only Source of Security in International Relations

2015-09-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

51due论文代写网精选代写范文:“Is Military Power the Only Source of Security in International Relations,,文章表明军事实力是主要的,但不是权力在国际关系的唯一来源。军事,经济和政治证券是一个统一的系统,这可能也不是没有任何这些元素的正常运作。环境问题应该是很重要的所有状态,因为损坏会影响整个世界。虚拟安全是国际政治舞台上的新的安全类型。它刚开始在全球国际化的世界的方式,但它可能会预见,在未来它将成为安全的主要来源之一。所有的一切军事力量不是安全的国际关系的唯一来源;此外,历史表明,新的安全来源正在上升。


Is military power the only source of security in international relations' According to B. McSweeney when we think about security we may come with two different images; the word ‘security’ evokes the picture of a solid object, it might be a lock or weapon for instance. In contrast, it might have different consequence, like make us think about vulnerability and even feel unsafe. In international relations security is understood differently, many of us could probably imagine army, tanks and bombs when thought about state security. Military power is definitely very important source of security in international relations but it is not the only one. Military power is a result of coherent security system, which includes military, economic, political, environmental and nowadays even virtual security. The relation between these sources of security is akin, and to understand how the whole system works it is necessary to understand each source individually. Military power is definitely the most powerful source of power. It uses direct aggression and brutality; it is probably the simplest way to get rid of your enemies but probably not the smartest one, as it always requires victims of your own.

From the emergence of human, until now military power is widely used, changed only the number of fighters, goals and the arsenal. There were times when horses were great advantage against your enemies. Horses helped to conquer half of the world for Alexander the Great, for Mongolians – to create the largest empire in the world, but people were improving. Once Napoleon said; “God is on the side of the big battalions” (Biddle,2004: 14) and then he was right, manpower was the main military power beside canons filled with the gunpowder, which was high tech at the time. Humans were fighting with swords and muskets and victims were calculated in thousands or hundreds of thousands, but not millions. But times have changed and weapons drastically changed. This was largely due to Industrial Revolution. International theories began to spread such as Realism or Liberalism. These theories apply different approaches and according to them states might maintain self-security and peace differently. (Eriksson, 2007) Realism attaches particular importance to military power. Realist’s states that anarchy in the world creates competitive environment and the pursuit of power are necessary to maintain self-security. Two different types of Realism provides us with different ways of pursuing power; defensive realism says that states should seek adequate power to ensure security, in contrast, offensive realism states that there are no such thing as ‘’adequate’’ power and states should seek for maximum power. Simply said, one says that it is enough to have sufficient amount of military resources, while other, that constant increase in military is the only way to guarantee security. (McSweeney, 1999) When viewing the world’s annual military expenditure, one state is far in front of the others. United States military expenditure accounts for nearly half of the whole world spending. It is obvious that USA takes the offensive realism politics.

Moreover, America is not only interested in self-secure, it clearly demonstrates its hegemony in the international political arena. Pretended with the theory of offensive Realism (removing the possible treats) it started the Iraq war. This war is nothing else, but the American invasion in the Middle East, and the main aim of this invasion is to profit. War has not yet been started, but America have already threatened and advertised Iraq’s guns of mass destruction. Such position was just a pretext to start a war and occupy the country rich in oil: “Bush administration has been unmistakably tightlipped about its oil interests in determining war policy”. (Jhaveri,2006: 2) As can be seen military power might not only secure the state, but also at the same time to help gain power and increase the other security source levels. Second, but certainly no less important source of security is economic security. All kind of security sources are related but the relation between military and economic securities is distinctly visible “economic and military power are fungible; that economic decline leads to military weakness” (Biddle, 14) It is simple; if state is economically poor it just cannot afford having a powerful military. Also wars itself always requires major economic resources, an example of that could be World War I, after such a huge military intervention Europe never recovered to the pre war greatness. But wars could not only lead to recession, in case of United States it might also cause the economic boom as it strongly enriched in both world wars.(Harris, 1972) Economic power may not only help to increase military power it might also work as a weapon against the enemy. There are many examples, like American sanctions to Iran, which started in 1979 when Americans forbid to Shan of Iraq to enter the USA for medical treatment, as a result Iranians held a terrorist attack on American Embassy and responding to this America freeze huge amount of Iranian tangible assets. Stagnation between Iran and USA remained until nowadays and Iran responds to the American policy. (Jhaveri, 2006) ‘Iran’s opposition to the U.S. …Iran’s acquisition of nuclear ballistic weapons, Iran’s general support for international terrorism, and Iran’s hostility toward the United States’. (Askari , 70) It reminds an indirect war. The best example of economic blockade in today world is North Korea, which is practically isolated by the international community and trades only with China. It might be thought that economic sanctions might stop or prevent the aggression in both internal and external levels, but according to H.Askari (2003) this does not prevent the combativeness, according to him, as an example could be Japan invasion in Manchuria, Italy invasion to Abyssinia and etc. Economic sanctions sometimes are a good way to achieve the desired results against other states without pursue of power, however it may cause the suffer of innocent people, it might also make damage for third countries as well as cause increasing unemployment. According to Realism, state may only profit in advance of others. Liberal approach pays special attention to cooperation between states and affirms that such regime may guarantee benefits and economical stability-security to every participant. The best example of that could be European Union which includes the most important Liberalist components; juridical equality, democracy, liberty, and most importantly – free market. The EU is an economic organization, which connects all the states together for each gain, however this does not preclude competition between states. Free markets, same as unfettered immigration cause competitive environment between participants, “Any country that depreciates its exchanges will thereby increase its employment at the expense of the other countries” (Harris, 133). Decreasing fees, what would attract foreign investors, might also led to the same result. Nevertheless, cooperation’s and Liberal economy is the most commonly used and probably the best way to guarantee states economic security in twenty first century. (Frankel, 1996) Political security is the widest of all security sources as it includes and influences all types of power “...the characteristics of political security will usually be general characteristics of security, because all security is political.” (Buzan, Waever, Wilde, 142).

According to B.Buzan political security could be defined as organizational stability of the state. In other words political security is an interaction between states at the organizational level. International politics is very complicated in the anarchical world were self-interest is the most important factor. State might never know whom to trust “politics cannot be reduced to the friend-enemy distinction (Schmitt)”. (Buzan, Waever, Wilde, 143) in contrast “nor can it be seen as community and consensus (Habermas, Rawls). (Buzan, Waever, Wilde 143). In general there is no clear definition of political security, everyone might interpret it in a different way as everyone sees that from different prospective. It might only be stated that politics play huge role in power policy. Environmental issues are also a type of security According to Buzan, Waever and Wilde, environmental security is the existence of two different agenda: a scientific and political. The scientific agenda has to meet academic standards, while political agenda could be shaped by governmental, media or public standards. For instance, if scientists threatening us with the skin cancer due to problems with ozone layer, it only helps from the point that we know the issue, and we can protect ourselves, but it does not affect the main problem. The conferences about environmental issues and the desire of all states together may only affect the main cause. (Buzan, 1998) Looking from the different angle, geographical conditions, such as water or mountains or swamps, could help prevent enemies or at least minimize the possible threats. In ancient history good territorial situation was the key to the victory. As the weapons changed it does not play such a huge role anymore, but the advantage is visible. That advantage let United Kingdom with its ‘unstoppable’ navy not only to control the big part of the world, but also to protect it from the external threats. However, looking back at history, sometimes even positive geographical conditions cannot help to prevent disaster. For example, when Napoleon crossed Alps and concurred the Rome in the 19th century. Living in 21st century makes us think not only about self-security, but also about the security of our personal data. Internet is widely used today, and prospective show that it will only spread in the future. This type of security is important not only for individuals. It plays a significant role in International Relations “Political scientists have for a considerable time identified the ability to control information flows as a function necessary to preserve national sovereignty and boost national security. (Eriksson, 7)


In conclusion, military power is the main, but not the only source of power in International Relations. Military, economic and political securities are a coherent system, which could not properly function without any of these elements. Environmental issues should be important to all of the states, as the damage would affect the whole world. Virtual security is the new type of security in International Politics arena. It has just began its way in global international world, but it might be predicted that in the future it will become one of the main sources of security. All in all Military power is not the only source of security in International Relations; moreover, history shows that new security sources are rising.


51Due网站原创范文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。
更多论文代写范文欢迎访问我们主页 www.51due.com 当然有论文代写需求可以和我们24小时在线客服 QQ:800020041 联系交流。-L

上一篇:Prevent Sexual Violence at Col 下一篇:Calories or fat grams--论文代写范文精