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Human Cloning--论文代写范文精选

2015-09-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

51due论文代写网精选代写范文:“ Human Cloning” 论文以克隆有关的几个问题展开,说明克隆的意义和危害。人类克隆是什么?克隆一个生物体即用DNA复制出新生物,而且有确切的遗传机体的功能和特点。成功克隆多利羊,克隆人类也可以成为现实。

What is human cloning?
Cloning an organism involves replicating the DNA of that organism in a new organism, that has the exact features and characteristics of the parent organism. Human cloning would mean recreating the person that is being cloned. With the successful cloning of Dolly, the sheep, human cloning is on the verge of becoming a reality.

How would human cloning work?
Human cloning, if it is ever done, will be carried out by the same method that brought forth Dolly, that is via reproductive cloning.

In reproductive cloning, the nucleus is isolated from a cell of the organism to be cloned, and is then inserted into an enucleated egg (an egg whose nucleus has previously been removed).

The egg with the new nucleus is then given electric or chemical treatment to simulate cell division. The resulting embryo is transferred to a host uterus to develop, and eventually gives birth to the clone.

The new-born organism will be a replica of the original organism, but not the exact, since it will have DNA derived from both the organism as well as the egg.

Why would human cloning be done?
Cloning animals, especially endangered species, is one way of preserving the species from dying out entirely. But why would anyone want to clone human beings? There are enough of us already on the planet, without enough resources to sustain the large population, so why bother to clone?

Well, one reason is pure scientific research. We've already come a long way. After Dolly, scientists have managed to clone various animals. So cloning humans seems the next logical step and a very important one too.

Cloning humans could also prove a major breakthrough as far as cloning for therapeutic purposes is concerned. Cloning could be used to produce new organs for organ transplants. Since the cloned organ, produced from a body cell of the person needing the transplant, would have the same genetic code, the risk of the body rejecting the new, transplanted organ is reduced to a great extent. Cloning could also be used to treat cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and a host of other illnesses.

Cloning would allow infertile couples to have their own genetic offspring or otherwise normal couples to order designer babies. It could also be used to bring back relatives from the dead. So if you want to give birth to your great-great-grandmother, you can! However, you need to have preserved some samples of her body cells. One American couple reportedly is willing to pay $500,000 to clone their dead infant daughter. And then there are some who would like to clone themselves, and thereby achieve eternal life.

Is it ethical to go ahead and clone humans?
Well, sometimes one of a kind is more than one can tolerate. But, on the serious side, many leading scientists that have been involved in cloning research, like Ian Wilmut and Richard Gardner, have expressed serious doubts and ethical dilemmas over the cloning of human beings.

Firstly, reproductive cloning is not yet a fool-proof method. It took 272 attempts before Dolly was produced. This means 272 embryos either failed to develop properly or were discarded as defective. In other cases, if the embryos weren't miscarried, a large percentage of the animals born showed a high degree of abnormality and died quickly or had to be euthanized. Those successfully cloned have shown many health problems and none have lived to a ripe old age so far.

Now, since human beings consider themselves a class apart, obviously many moral problems would arise with treating defective human embryos or new-born, handicapped babies in the very same manner.

There is also no way of predicting what the intelligence level and capabilities of a human clone would be. What would be the psychological and societal implications for it as an individual? What kind of a life or future would it have? Since we don't know, many people consider it unethical to go ahead and clone. But that argument doesn't hold much ground. After all, we have no way of knowing exactly what sort of a person, a normally conceived embryo will turn out to be either.

Is Human Cloning legally allowed?
Reproductive cloning of humans is banned in many countries around the world, including the USA and UK. Therapeutic cloning is allowed to some degree, however, it has faced a lot of opposition from religious and pro-life organizations, many of whom are acquainted with its theological implications, than its theoretical possibilities.
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