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Marketing and logistics literature

2022-01-04 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Marketing and logistics literature,文章描述随着营商环境正在发生的变化,例如,日益全球化的市场,更苛刻的客户,等等,这是难以组织有效竞争的基础上,传统的营销组合变量单独。相信长期留住客户关系营销的主要目的。被替换的概念,仅仅是向客户出售有效地为他们提供服务(1998年巴拉苏罗)。服务客户已经显示出显着地影响组织的性能。高层次的客户服务可以影响购买决策。

With the ongoing changes in the business environment, for example, increasing globalization of market, more demanding customers, etc, it’s difficult for organizations to compete effectively on the basis of traditional marketing mix variables alone. Long-term customer retention is believed as the key aim of relationship marketing. The concept of merely selling to customers is being replaced by serving them effectively (Parasuraman 1998). Customer service has been shown to significantly impact the performance of an organization. High level customer service can influence purchasing decision. Providing good customer service has seen as a method of building a sustainable competitive advantage and maintaining customer for the organization (Bolumole et.al 2003).

随着营商环境正在发生的变化,例如,日益全球化的市场,更苛刻的客户,等等,这是难以组织有效竞争的基础上,传统的营销组合变量单独。相信长期留住客户关系营销的主要目的。被替换的概念,仅仅是向客户出售有效地为他们提供服务(1998年巴拉苏罗)。服务客户已经显示出显着地影响组织的性能。高层次的客户服务可以影响购买决策。提供良好的客户服务看作是建立可持续的竞争优势的一种方法和维护客户组织(Bolumole et.al2003)。

In marketing area, customer service is defined as “facilitate possession utility by creating awareness of the product, offering a mechanism such as price, by which the buyer-seller exchange can take place, and often offering follow-up service and warranty on the product” (Emerson and Grimm 1996, p. 29). On the other hand, logistics customer service is seen as related to all aspects of inventory movement and storage, including acquisition of raw materials, coordination of work-in-process inventory, and delivery of finished inventory (Dilger 1997). It’s defined as the output of the organization’s logistics system and represents a measure of the logistics system performance in creating time and place utility, measuring its ability to satisfy existing customers and attract new ones (Bolumole et.al 2003). Tucker (1994) grouped customer service research in the literatures into two classifications, the physical distribution approach and the marketing orientation approach. Different areas as following have been looked at by researchers in these approaches.

在营销领域,客户服务被定义为“拥有方便实用的产品创造意识,提供了一种机制,如价格,由买卖双方交换可以发生,并经常提供后续服务和保修产品上“(爱默生和格林1996年,第29页)。它被定义为组织的物流系统的输出,代表了衡量的创建时间和地点效用,测量能力,以满足现有客户和吸引新的(Bolumole et.al2003)物流系统的性能。


Physical distribution approach


l savings achieved by providing different customer service packages to different types of customers (Hutchinson and Stolle 1968)


l the importance of customer service activities and the effect of the customer service mix on the purchase decisions (Perreault and Russ 1973)


l the perceived relative importance of customer service activities across industries and between individuals in a single company (LaLonde and Zinszer 1976)

认知的相对重要性不同行业和个人之间在一个单一公司的客户服务活动(1976年LALONDE Zinszer)

l the relationship between attitudes towards customer service and distribution system design variables (Zinszer 1976)


l the strategic nature of customer service and its interface with other functional areas (Christopher, Schary, and Skjott-Larsen 1979)


Marketing orientation approach


l the importance of customer service as perceived by suppliers and customers (Hopkins and Bailey 1970; LaLonde and Levy 1977; Levy 1978, Tucker 1980)

客户服务的重要性,认为由供应商和客户(霍普金斯和1970年贝利; LALONDE和1977年征收印花税1978年,1980年塔克)

l the customer’s satisfaction with customer service as perceived by suppliers and customers (LaLonde and Levy 1977; Levy 1978; Tucker 1980)


Tucker (1994) concluded that the physical distribution orientation to customer service recognizes  only the “place” dimension in the marketing mix of product, place, promotion and price. The marketing approach includes the activities occurring in all four categories of the marketing mix. Furthermore, physical distribution orientation is primarily concerned with services provided to the next member in the channel of distribution. The marketing orientation, on the other hand, is concerned with the entire channel of distribution. However, each approach has different effort effects on companies by using different measures. More important, Tucker (1994) emphasized the appreciation of the differences of the two approaches and their relative strengths and weaknesses in customer service research and customer service management.

Only appreciating the differences is not enough. According to Christopher (1986), organizations wishing to gain a competitive advantage must do so by integrating distribution, marketing, and manufacturing at the strategic level rather than viewing them separately. Customer service then becomes the “thread that links the logistics and marketing processes”. Christopher is not the only author holding such opinion. White and Pearson (2001) suggest that organizations should become more adept at integrating all phases of their production systems; all functions along the material flow pipeline, from the acquisition of raw materials through the transformation and distribution process to the final customer must be integrated to provide total product value for customers. Similarly, Ballou (2006) defined logistics customer service as the performance (output) of the processes associated with providing a product or service to customers. More importantly, logistics customer service is multi-dimensional, consisting of many variables, each of which may have different importance to various customer segments depending on the product or service, their locations, competitive setting, and their particular service needs.



Customer service studied in this paper is based on the above definition. This paper has not limited customer service on purely physical distribution area, but taking other factors like marketing into consideration.




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