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Indonesian Statement on the Situation in Syria”

2021-12-16 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组给各位留学生分享一篇纯原创代写范文essay,文章主要讨论印尼近年来在叙利亚局势问题上一直保持中立立场。政治上,由于国内外环境的变化,后苏哈托时代的印尼中东政策发生了巨大变化。在印尼独立初期,印尼自然的“伊斯兰性质”对国内政局的不稳定起到了重要作用。中东的自然穆斯林,包括埃及和叙利亚,很快就认识到印尼新政府的国际合法性。然而,印度尼西亚没有采取完全伊斯兰化的外交政策。以及背景指导问题。

希望这篇可以帮助到各位留学生,同时需要代写课业可以直接联系我们51Due客服(vx:Athey520)进行咨询。

Part A: General Considerations

Indonesia has always remained in the neutral stance regarding the Syria situation in recent years. Politically, due to changes in the domestic and international environment, the Indonesian Middle East policy in the post-Suharto era has undergone tremendous changes. In the early days of Indonesia's independence, Indonesia's natural "Islamic nature" played an important role in the instability of the domestic political situation. The natural Muslims in the Middle East, including Egypt and Syria, soon recognized the new Indonesian government’s international legitimacy. However, Indonesia did not adopt a foreign policy with a complete Islamic tendency. Taking the attitude towards Pakistani and Israel as an example, Suharto has been extremely cautious. After a complicated debate, although Palestine was allowed to establish an embassy in a major Indonesian city, it took fifteen years to build it. Indonesia's vague attitude on this issue, on the one hand, is a compromise for Middle Eastern countries and domestic Muslims. On the other hand, it takes into account the feelings of Western powers behind Israel, especially the US. Indonesia certainly does not want to undermine the friendly relations with the Middle East countries because of the contradictions between Palestine and Israel, but at the same time it does not hope that this issue will affect the economic assistance of Western countries to Indonesia. This example demonstrates the fundamental neutral position of Indonesia’s foreign relations policy.

In recent years, Indonesia has promoted an independent and friendly diplomatic line and believes in a zero-enemy policy. Indonesia has always been an active promoter and participant of the Non-Aligned Movement. Just as its domestic moderate Muslim policy is implemented, Indonesia's foreign policy has also followed a gentle line. Former President Susilo is proud to announce that no country believes that Indonesia is an enemy, and no country is considered an enemy by Indonesia, either. Indonesia can freely pursue foreign policy in all directions. It is with this concept that Indonesia has maintained friendly relations with neighboring countries and has always regarded itself as an active participant in the affairs of the region and a mediator among different interest countries, actively shaping the image of a peacemaker. For example, although “envoys from the US, the UK and France asked to meet Indonesia's Foreign Minister and requested that Indonesia add its voice to those condemning the Assad regime, in Syria”, Indonesia resisted such pressure, and maintained its neutral stance and condemns only the use of chemical weapons by any non-specified parties in Syria that violates the basic human rights, instead of pointing fingers at any one of the parties (Tisnadibrata, 2018).

Overall, Indonesia seeks a flexible and balanced diplomacy. If necessary, Indonesia is willing to play the role of mediator. Indonesia also uses its unique identity to try to serve as a bridge between the Islamic world and the West. In addition, Indonesia advocates not interfering in the internal affairs principles. Therefore, on the Syrian issue, Indonesia emphasizes that the legitimate government of Syria is determined by the Syrian people themselves, not by external parties.

Part B: Background Guide Questions

1. Humanitarian Aid

Humanitarian groups have been actively seeking ways to help the Syrian civilians who suffer from the violence of war. The Indonesian organization Aksi Cepat Tanggap (ACT) has sent their staff to the country to come up with plans to bring supplies into the country and help those who are the most in need (Aritonang, 2016). These supplies include foods, clothes, tents and medicine. The organization is also planning to set up offices in Syria and Turkey so that they are able to help more directly. Building supply factors in the non-warring zones in Syria is an effective way for the humanitarian aid to be delivered more promptly. Being a neutral party, Indonesia also focuses on fostering trade relations with Syria in order to promote development and peace in the region. Recently, a delegation from the Federation of Syrian Chambers of Commerce signed a memo of understanding with the Federation of Indonesian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. The purpose of the memo was “to enhance the bilateral trade relations between the two countries” (Ruaa al-Jazaeri, 2018). Such actions show the Indonesian government’s determination to help maintain the economic stability in Syria, which will be substantial for potential peace negotiations.

UN Intervention

     The Indonesian government is supportive of the increased UN intervention in Syria, mainly in the form of initiating regional ceasefires. The peaceful resolution of conflicts is not only an important principle in international politics, but also the main path to resolve the crisis. Mediation is a common method of reconciliation. Since the end of the cold war, the United Nations has always been an important mediator of the international community. After the outbreak of the Syrian crisis in 2011, the United Nations gradually intervened in the Syrian crisis. In July 2014, Stafan de Mistura became the UN Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Syria. The status of the new UN mediator is no longer the United Nations-Arab joint representative. The appointment of a more moderate Egyptian diplomat as a deputy special envoy suggests that the United Nations intends to keep a distance from the more radical Arab forces. The United Nations has thus become the core of the Syrian crisis and has begun to play the role of an independent leader.

In the above context, de Mistura no longer emphasized the achievement of a comprehensive ceasefire after taking the position, but attempted to promote a limited ceasefire in the local area, Aleppo. Aleppo is the most important city in northern Syria. By July 2014, the formation of government forces, anti-government forces and Kurdish armed forces, and the continuous penetration of IS was created. The war has led to a lack of basic living materials for the people in the city and a serious humanitarian crisis. In response to this situation, Mistura's mediation team designed the “freeze the current status” plan, which advocates “freezing” violence in Aleppo for a certain period of time (Black, 2014). No parties here take any action to ensure that the United Nations enters the ceasefire area to provide humanity aid. Its purpose is to establish mutual trust between the parties to the conflict while carrying out humanitarian relief. Although the subsequent development of the situation has prevented the plan from being effectively implemented, this regional ceasefire model is a promising attempt of peaece in Syria.

Political Processes

Initiating domestic and international negotiation platforms is the primary political process that all parties in Syria should aim to achieve. After the "freezing status" plan failed, de Mistura's goal turned to coordinate domestic and international talks. He first organized the third round of Geneva talks to accommodate the parties to the conflict, with the aim of listening to the opinions of all parties. At the beginning of May 2015, more than 200 representatives from the Syrian government and more than 50 opposition parties participated in the meeting hosted by de Mistura (Security Council, 2015). The content of the talks shows that on the issue of power sharing, the position of the Syrian government has been loosened, and the discussion on transitional institutions has been accepted theoretically. However, the details of what kind of power is given are not discussed in detail, and the attitudes of the opposition parties remain the same, that Assad must step down from power before any progress can be made. Shortly after the meeting, the Iranian nuclear issue was resolved under the mediation of the six countries, which made the international level more optimistic about the settlement of the Syrian crisis through peace talks.

Indonesia “stresses the importance of a comprehensive resolution of the conflict in Syria through negotiations and peaceful means and expressed concern about the security of civilians, calling on all parties to ensure that the safety of women and children was always a priority" (Tisnadibrata, 2018). The current theoretical analysis of the Syrian civil war ignores an important link, from the perspective of the development mechanism of the civil war, to discuss the development process of the Syrian civil war. Among the many theories about civil war, we focus on The Termination of Civil War (Hegre, 2004). The theory of the civil war termination mainly studies the end of the civil war, aiming to explore the relevant factors and mechanisms that affect the way of ending. Generally speaking, the end of the civil war can be divided into political settlement and military settlement. The so-called political settlement refers to the establishment of a ceasefire agreement or political reconciliation agreement by the warring parties in the civil war, and the so-called military settlement means that the civil war ends with either the government army or the opposition party winning in the battlefield. Meanwhile, the political process should not overlook the influences of international forces, especially the US, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Iran. These four forces are divided into two camps. Without a resolution between these two camps and a unanimous international support, domestic negotiations will not be effective alone.

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