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A hero depends on his thoughts

2021-11-11 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文


Abstract: This paper compares Odysseus' heroism with the other two heroes Achilles and Arjuna. In any type of mythology, whether Greek mythology or Indian mythology, countless examples of heroes can be found everywhere, including the most famous heroes. For the sake of discussion, only three of them are listed, namely Odysseus, Achilles and Arjuna. Every classic hero's life focuses on the battle that takes place in war or epic exploration. Classical heroes are usually semi divine and have outstanding talents. Although these heroes are incredibly brave and skilled, they are often complacent and lack self-control. As far as the overall character is concerned, Achilles and Arjuna are the foil of Odysseus. There is no comparison between them, because Odysseus is more like a hero than Achilles and Arjuna, because they rely on the heart rather than power.


According to the Oxford English Chinese dictionary for advanced learners, "mind" means "your thinking and reasoning ability" (1275), while "power" means "great power, energy or power" (1271). From Odysseus' War achievements, compared with the other two heroes Achilles and Arjuna, he is more suitable to use the word "heart" than "force". They may rely on force when building war achievements.


1. Introduction to heroes


Merriam Webster Dictionary defines a hero as "a person who is respected for his great or brave behavior or good quality." (definition of hero, 2017) classic heroes are regarded as "soldiers who live and die in pursuit of honor" and claim their greatness through "the brilliance and efficiency of their killing". (Schein, 58) in any type of mythology, whether Greek mythology or Indian mythology, countless examples of heroes can be found everywhere, including the most famous heroes. For the sake of discussion, only three of them are listed, namely Odysseus, Achilles and Arjuna.


1.1 Odyssey


Homer's epic Odyssey is regarded as one of the most important masterpieces in the history of European literary classics. It mainly tells the journey of Odysseus home after the Trojan War. As the great grandson of the Olympian god Hermes and king of Ithaca, Odysseus was one of the most influential Greek heroes during the Trojan War. Although Odyssey is the protagonist of Odyssey, he also appears in some plots of Iliad.


1.2 Achilles


Homer's epic Iliad is regarded as a narrative describing Achilles' actions in the Trojan War, with his anger as the theme. As a Greek hero, Achilles is regarded as the most outstanding military soldier in the whole Trojan War and the protagonist of the Iliad. His parents were Thetis and Peleus, who made Achilles a demigod. He has superhuman power on the battlefield and is blessed by the gods. As we all know, Achilles is invincible, because as soon as he was born, his mother immersed him in the river Styx with his left heel. That is why Achilles had a fatal weakness, which Paris later took advantage of.


1.3 Arjuna


Arjuna is the protagonist of Mahabharata, a famous epic in Indian history. Mahabharata is the longest epic in the world, with a total of about 1.8 million words, which is comparable to the world-famous epics Iliad and Odyssey. Through a Hindu spell, his mother Kunti asked Indra, the Lord of heaven, to give birth to a son. That child is Arjuna, who is destined to live a heroic life.


2. Comparison between Heroes


2.1 Odysseus vs Achilles


The Trojan War between Greece and Troy had a far-reaching impact on the world. It is not only familiar with the context of war, but also well-known warrior heroes such as Odysseus and Achilles. Although they are all on the Greek side, they are very different in dealing with matters that reflect their overall characteristics.


When Achilles was young, he was raised by half man, half beast, half man, half man Ma Kailong. Kailong taught the prince how to make good use of the importance of beast and human nature. To some extent, this education made Achilles a hero who depended on strength rather than mind. Therefore, Achilles is an emotional man. He has courage, but lacks tactics. He had all his courage, but he was not resourceful, so he often fell into grief as his name implied. For example, when Agamemnon stole Achilles' War prize, Achilles was very angry. He asked his mother to persuade Zeus to help the Trojans become stronger in the war, so that he had a chance to regain his honor. Because Achilles refused to fight, his best friend Patroclus was killed by Hector wearing Achilles' armor. With great grief, Achilles returned to the war, killed Hector for revenge, and declared that "my anger, my anger will drive me to cut off your meat and eat you raw - you have caused me such pain." (Homer, 22.346) after Patroclus died, Achilles had a close relationship with Antiochus. When King Menon of Ethiopia killed Antiochus on the battlefield. Achilles once again killed mennon in revenge. Achilles is famous for his uncontrollable anger and reckless physical courage, which explains many of his bloodthirsty behaviors. He is a reckless and tragic character in the Iliad.


But fighting needs heroes who are smart and brave, not reckless people who are braver than smart. This reflects the importance of Odyssey. Odysseus is brave and wise. He is one of the consultants who rely on him most. When the king was questioned, he always gave advice and advised Achilles what to do when Achilles was angry. Perhaps the most famous contribution Odysseus made was the installation of a huge Trojan horse, which contained many brave soldiers, including Odysseus as a leader. With this disguise, the Greek soldiers successfully sneaked into the city of Troy and opened the gate of Troy under the cover of darkness. Therefore, after ten years of struggle, Greece won the final victory, thanks to the wisdom of Odysseus. From this point of view, Odysseus is a hero who depends on his mind rather than strength, and Achilles is a spoiled child who willfully does what he wants to do.


2.2 Odyssey vs Arjuna


In ancient Indian society, the epic Mahabharata is still a religious classic in the eyes of local people, which contains rich philosophical and moral sources. As the central figure of the epic, Arjuna acted in accordance with Indian law and justice. Like the meaning of the title "the great story of the bohrado Dynasty", Mahabharata describes the life and times of the pandava people in devapalayuga. Arjuna is suitable for physical exertion and intellectual pursuit. He not only learned many skills, such as religion, science, administration and military art, but also was good at bows and arrows. In addition to what he learned, he also had a bow, a chariot with four horses and a conch to help him defeat all his enemies.


In terms of personality, Arjuna is a mature and cautious man. Arjuna inadvertently disturbed the privacy of yotishtila and delaupadi. Therefore, he had to accept punishment and begin a 12-year exile, despite the forgiveness of Yudi shitilla and delau PADI. It shows that on the one hand, he is a man with a clear conscience as his name implies, on the other hand, he is a man with principles and doesn't know how to adapt to life. On the contrary, Odysseus is more flexible than Arjuna. For example, when Odysseus was asked to retrieve Helen who led to the Trojan War, he pretended to be insane and tried to avoid the war, because an Oracle told him that if he went, he had to endure a long delayed conflict to go home. In order to convince people that he was crazy, he hooked a donkey and a cow to the plow and began to sow with salt. Unfortunately, his plot was exposed by the palamides with Odysseus's youngest son in front of the plow. If Arjuna falls into such a situation, he will act immediately without hesitation and no longer rush, because he is a straightforward person and doesn't know how to detour. In this regard, Odysseus relied mainly on the mind rather than strength, while Arjuna was a man who adhered to principles and had no flexibility.


3. Conclusion


Both in Greece and India, Odysseus, Achilles and Arjuna are brave soldiers who have made great achievements with their courage and determination. In people's traditional eyes, Odysseus is regarded as the opposite of Achilles in the Iliad (Miller, 120-121): Odysseus combines wisdom and courage, while Achilles destroys himself driven by anger. Odysseus is regarded as a rational man and an eloquent adviser who is good at planning, while Achilles is an emotional reckless man who lacks the ability of self-control, which leads to his sadness. At the same time, taking Arjuna as an example, it is also very important to deeply explore Odysseus' character. The epic gives a vivid and in-depth description of Odysseus' character. In other words, in order to correctly understand Odysseus's characterization, "mind" or "possibility", as a key factor in portraying the role, should not be ignored, because the character can be marked as "mind" or "possibility". There is no doubt that Odysseus is more like a hero than Achilles and Arjuna, because he relies on the heart rather than power. Although they have different personalities, their names will go down in history.



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