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How does race determine inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in American society

2021-09-16 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文


America is a racially various country. Modern racial issues, along with its influence in the political and economic development of the country, have been tested by many historians and researchers across kinds of academic realms. Race has played an essential part in shaping American society. Racial rule can be interpreted as a slow and unfavorable historical process that has shifted from dictatorship to democracy, from domination to hegemony. In this transition, hegemonic forms of racial rules which based on agreement and finally came to replace those based on oppression. While how has race determined inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in U.S society? As for as I’m concerned, it must be qualified in important ways and these changes demonstrated vividly especially in immigration, white identity and American culture.

The large tide of immigration has to great degree destroyed the purity of race in American society. The forms of ideology are indivisible from historical and geographical contexts. Modern western theories of race rooted in a burgeoning science during the 18th and 19th centuries, after the heat of rationalizing for colonialism. America routinely excluded Philippine immigrants from during 1898 and 1936. The initial practices of eugenic and geopolitics were making social policy known in the United States. As an efficient social policy, immigration law rose to exclude perceived unpleasant, and racially differences, immigrant groups, apparently to defend race and nation.1 With a lot of social-reform policies all over the world appearing, eugenics stood out to justify them by inspiring the reproduction which literally fit individuals while refuting those which unfit individuals. In the 1920s and early 1930s, due to the outcry of public, Philippine immigrants were excluded. In fact, the movement were complicated for the fact that Philippine was a colony of America. From then, we can see that immigration and political independence were paired. Therefore, the concept of geopolitics was put forward. The union of geopolitics and eugenics forecast a perilous world where racial vicinity and territorial extent may caused racial and social decadence, even the potential for racial wars.It claimed that it is the identification of inferior and decadent peoples that posed a threat to the race and state security. America has been called a melting pot which means different kinds of peoples gathering there. It is a term that implies American’s toleration of diversity. A multiracial society always built on immigration. The United States has nonetheless been afflicted at different stages and experienced undesirable immigrants, which almost entirely confined to immigrants from European countries, since nonwhites were unwelcome and, in fact, Asians had been excluded, which not only cemented judgments about presentation of Europeans but also fed and reinforced prevailing views which already present in the United States. The most salient of immigrants were African Americans, whose inferior status enshrined in jim crow laws and assumed in pseudoscientific arguments about racial. However, as long as peoples became beneficial to the state’s developments, the inclusion became reality. For example, since 1852, sugar plantations had been developed in the Hawaiian Island by American businesspersons. Massive immigration from Philippine to the United States started in Hawaii for the potential economic boom. In this way, it is benefit that operates the migration.

 White identities are another undeniable element in the process of race changes. Racial identities are not only limited in Black, Latino, Asian and Native American, but  white people. To be blind to white superiority is equal to amplify its hegemony through using it. It is necessary to explore the social construction of white identities. As Peter Brimelow once said, “The American nation has always had a specific ethnic core. And that core has been white”.3 White peoples held a firmly belief in eugenics. They described discrimination and racism as natural way to stopping various races from connecting. There also existed a thought that nature alone was not enough to impede these births. They even put a ban on intermarriage and supplemented by law.4 In the beginning of 20th centuries, the ideational basis and scientific reliability geopolitically declared eugenics appearing with the racist and nationalist development of federal immigration policy in America.5 Unlike other groups in the United States, white people have been influenced by various factors when referring to the development of their ethno-racial identity. White Americans have been given more power than other groups by a racial autocracy and now a racial democracy, since the coming of Europeans in the late 15th century. 6 Through ruling other groups and shifting white dreams into American dreams, white culture into American culture.This mind patterns has become more and more notable. What’s more, because their  advantages in politics, labor, resident, society and culture were far more prominent, it is quite challenging for whites to recognize their superior status and comprehend how they promoted the perseverance and breeding of white hegemony. However, minorities who are conscious of the unequal distribution of resources in the U.S. society were lost in the idea. Through accepting the fact that whites have experienced various causal effects on their ethno-racial identities than other groups, it is quite easier to estimate the results. For one thing, whites have evidently received benefits from their controlling status. In such status, whites do anything to deal with forecast competition. It means that white Americans hato expand their membership to other groups and they have been inspired to take an extreme action to protect their position. Without surprise, a great desire to maintain residentially segregated from other groups rose. The hegemonic mindsets among whiteness implied that whites’ ethno-racial identities were in fact not as thin as what they appeared. Although the outstanding of their ethno-racial identity appeared muting to whites, it is in fact an excessively everywhere force that is clearly seen by non-whites. In a word, whites have formed an ethno-racial identity but kept hidden from their view due to the control of the early western Europeans to this country and the keeping dominance of later generations of whites. Being at the top of the ethno-racial ladder in a racial country, whites kept occupying a impressive position that is nearly invisible. It can not be deny that this ethno-racial identity effects their lives and others in many ways. But actually the conflict of uneven resource distribution led to a incessant offensive between whites and non-whites in America.

Last but not least, culture conflicts between native Americans and the newly arrived peoples is an important issue of race. Economic and demographic changes caused by the war increased racial conflict and enhanced class tensions within black communities as well.7 For strengthening hegemony, dominant groups were urgent to  design and develop a popular system, the so-called common sense, through education, media, religion, folk wisdom and so on. It was by its procreation and stickiness to this common sense, or say ideology, that a society gave its permission to the way it is ruled. These public culture bred provocative concepts and edified the masses, which could be utilized as an tool of racial rule. For example, in the Americans, music played an important role in racial challenge for it was experiencing a revolution during the war. Developing partly out of black musicians’ revolt against white-dominated swing bands, partly out of the enhanced aggressiveness of black urban youth who spoke and dressed with improvisation, the music called “bebop”  emerged among dramatic social and political changes. In addition, different views towards democratic also had something to do with racism. Black persons gained accumulated visibility during the 1930s, a decade full of turbulent race relation, leading to more complicated political conflict within the Democratic Party. In fact, the South had firmly become Democratic since the Civil War. At the same time,  African-Americans had been attracted by the Roosevelt administration, hence alienating lots of Southerners. The increasing divide between Northern and Southern Democrats over the issue of race came to an untimely end when a fight for bill took place. This bitter political fight suggested that the culture and racism conflict still firmly instrenched in America in the 1930s. All in all, culture indeed exerted great influence on the race problems and cultural conflicts between different peoples to some extend determined the inclusion, exclusion or segregation of races.

In conclusion, Racism segregation in the U.S. has emerged as a major issue since the colonial and the slave era. Race to some degree decides the structure of American society. During the process, the immigration impaired the purity of race, white identity amplified the hegemony to discriminate none-whites, and cultural conflicts bred disharmonious elements among different groups. All of these resulted in the complicated racial inclusion, exclusion and segregation in American society.



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