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Primary Source Analysis Essay – The Manden Charter

2021-08-31 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

马里帝国是由曼丁卡人建立的,曼丁卡人是西非的一个民族,也是该地区最大的民族之一。马里帝国(1230-1670)建立后的几年,也被称为曼丁戈帝国,帝国形成了一个宪法称为kouroukan Fuga。古鲁坎富加由帝国各氏族的贵族代表组成,为新建立的帝国政府的形成做出了贡献。Kouroukan Fuga制定了一份指导曼丁卡人民的管理法律法规大纲。这项法律后来被称为曼登宪章(也被称为库鲁坎富加宪章)。因此,曼登宪章的创造者是马里帝国的贵族,观众是曼丁卡人和行政组织,他们利用曼登宪章的规定来解决社会冲突。由于法律的目的是在新建立的帝国中充当冲突的解决者和稳定者,曼登宪章是一个重要的信息来源,因为它反映了西非社会如何在不受欧洲殖民者影响的情况下独立运作。

The Malian empire was established by the Mandinka people, a nation in West Africa and one of the largest nationalities in the region. A few years after the establishment of the Malian Empire (1230-1670), also known as the Mandingo Empire, the Empire formed a Constitution called kouroukan Fuga. Kurukanfuga was composed of aristocratic representatives from different clans of the Empire, which contributed to the formation of the newly established imperial government. Kouroukan Fuga created an outline of governing laws and regulations to guide the people of Mandinka. The law was later known as the manden Charter (also known as the kurukanfuga Charter). Therefore, the creator of the manden charter is the nobility of the Malian Empire, and the audience is the Mandinka people and administrative organizations, who use the provisions of the manden charter to solve social conflicts. Since the purpose of law is to act as a conflict solver and stabilizer in the newly established Empire, the structure and content of law should provide a code of thought and conduct for most people《 The manden charter is an important source of information because it reflects how West African societies operate independently without the influence of European colonists.

 

As mentioned above, the main purpose of the manden charter is to establish social order and stabilize the whole society. It was announced by gurukanfuga, the constitution of the Empire, after the formation of the constitution. After the battle of krina in 1235, the Malian Empire urgently needed to consolidate its victory and rule over West Africa. Therefore, the manden charter was formulated in 1236 to meet the needs of the ruling class. In order to formulate the manden charter, many wise men from all over the region were called together to put forward the specific provisions of the law. At first, the manden charter was not written, but oral. This is consistent with the cultural traditions of African tribes, who believe in preserving wisdom through oral transmission of information between generations. The process of transmitting this information is different from modern communication. It is only passed from father to son, and the coding method of information is unique to the local tribe.

 

The Mandinka believe that the manden charter is sacred. For West African tribes, the manden charter has symbolic significance beyond utilitarianism. It condenses the wisdom and values of their people and is the representative of the imperial / Tribal tradition. The clan made great efforts to preserve this oral tradition and organized an annual ceremony in the kurukan Fuga region. Surprisingly, the manden charter and its rituals are still alive in Malian villages《 The Charter consists of seven chapters, covering the norms of social diversity and harmony, the basic rights of the people, education, the protection of homes, food, slavery, freedom and commercial activities. For preservation, UNESCO transcribed the Charter into 44 separate articles. The first 31 articles involve social organization and harmony, promoting love, peace and brotherhood among people. It also identified the main components of the Malian empire. Society is divided into two categories: free people and enslaved people. Then, free people were further divided to undertake different social functions, including soldiers, nobles, educators, intellectuals, artists, musicians, craftsmen and so on. Some of these functions are not mutually exclusive. A clan can play a variety of functions in society.

 

One of the main functions of manden is to define social organization and structure, as shown above. Another of its main functions is to resolve conflicts among members of society. For example, there is an established hierarchy between different clans. Talented people will not be offended. Neighbors should be friendly and help each other when necessary. When there is conflict between people, a meditator will be appointed so that they will not evolve into wider hostility or even tribal war. Some articles in Madden magazine are familiar to people in modern society. For example, locals must not harm foreigners and protect ambassadors between different empires. These articles reflect the desire of the Malian empire for peace. In addition to foreign affairs and clan relations, domestic magic language is also found in Madden. These crimes include major crimes such as murder and theft, as well as the husband's obligations to his wife. If the wife's needs for food, clothes, etc. are not met, she even has the right to divorce her husband. In general, the manden charter provides comprehensive guidelines on how to live in harmony with others in Mandingo society.

 

The reliability of the Madden charter may be questioned by its oral nature. In the process of passing messages between generations, errors will inevitably occur. However, in order to minimize inaccuracies, some efforts have been made to derive the transcript of the Charter. According to mango Niang, more than 20 traditional oral communicators attended a meeting and presented a written version of the Charter. Before this version was created, several different versions circulated among West African tribes. It must be pointed out here that the idea of the "original" version may not matter, because the Charter was not formed overnight, but after countless rounds of application, additions and modifications. The memories and values of different clans must also be added to their own version of the Charter. Some even contain stories and historical stories, making the Charter more vivid than the simple form adopted by UNESCO.

 

Most of the 20 communicators are from Guinea, as well as several European participants and scholars. After reviewing every article of the Charter, everyone agreed to the final version. Therefore, although this written document may differ from every oral Charter of the local tribe, it captures the essence of the manden charter and is therefore considered a reliable main source. One question raised was that 16 correspondents were from Guinea and only one was from Mali. Additional input from Mali may be required to confirm the information in this document. Finally, the overall validity of the document has been confirmed by reliable sources, who themselves are the first-hand owners of the Charter《 The manden charter shows the most natural and natural side of West African civilization to people in modern society. The overall pursuit of peace and conflict minimization shows the most urgent needs of a new stable empire. The fact that this empire has lasted for more than 400 years in West Africa is enough to prove the success of the manden charter《 Some of the values and concepts of the Charter, such as building social harmony and protecting mother nature, continue to have a significant impact in modern Africa.


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