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A sense of justice, fairness and justice

2021-07-30 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组给各位留学生分享一篇纯原创代写范文essay,文章主要讨论封建主义结束几百年来,人们逐渐形成了正义感、公平感和公感,但至今还没有人能够完全保证这一点。因此,我想集中讨论不同领域的普通人如何定义正义、公平和公正,以及不公平如何影响社会正义。我发现与我的主题相关的学科分别是行为科学和经济学领域。因此,我选择分析一本关于行为科学的书,关于公平的跨学科观点,以及一篇关于经济学、公平和不平等接受的发展的学者文章。希望这篇可以帮助到各位留学生,同时需要代写也可以直接联系我们51Due客服vx(vx:Athey520)进行咨询。

People have gradually developed the sense of justice, fairness and equity since the end of feudalism hundreds of years ago, but none can completely guarantee them yet. Therefore, I would like to focus on the topic of how average people in various fields define justice, fairness and equity, and how unfairness might affect social justification. The disciplines that I find related to my topic are respectively the field of behavioral science and economics. Therefore, I choose to analyze a book of behavioral science, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fairness, and a scholar article of economics, Fairness and the Development of Inequality Acceptance.

Almas and her colleagues, professors of Norwegian School of Economics, published the scholar article Fairness and the Development of Inequality Acceptance on January 2010. There is no doubt that articles are limited in length compared to books. Thus, they have to further narrow down the topic and extract the essence of their analysis and findings. In this article, Almas and her colleagues focus on analyzing individuals’ reactions and tolerability of unfairness. According to the authors, the rise of unfairness tolerability has been a worldwide tendency. To support their argument, they cite plenty of detailed figures and statistics to interpret “the development of inequality acceptance.” From their perspectives, the increase of unfairness tolerability links to not only the growth of age but also the change of social context. Nevertheless, it can be a problem if people gradually lose sense of justice, ability of judgement, and awareness of self-protection.

From my perspective, the authors fully use ethos as the main method of presenting evidences. Nearly all the contents of this article are based on the statistics they find out. Therefore, the intended audiences of this article should be either the students or the scholars within the field of economics and statistics. Otherwise, without professional knowledge in economics and statistics, the readers may be confused of the supportive evidences that the authors present in the article.

As the authors of Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fairness, Equity, and Justice, another book that I choose to analyze, Li and Tracer have devoted to the field of anthropology and behavioral sciences for decades. Nevertheless, instead of simply defining justice in their own field, they’ve mainly discussed how fairness, equity and justice are interpreted in other disciplines, such as economics, politics and philosophy. In my opinion, the purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding of justice to audiences who are interested in learning what the role that justice plays in the human society is. Different from Almas and her colleagues, Li and Tracer mainly use past examples and theories, along with only a few statistical tables, as the supportive evidences to each of the arguments they raise. In my opinion, they present the evidences in pathos when they illustrate examples and relate them to the main topic, while using ethos when they choose to present statistical figures and theories in order to enhance the authority and reliability of their arguments.

The style of the paper Fairness and the Development of Inequality Acceptance seems to be more approachable to the general reader with the use of more common words. For example, phrases such as “hard to explain” and “play a role” in are commonly found in daily communications. The use of “smaller words” and simple sentence structures make the argument of the author much more straightforward. In comparison, the articles in the book is found to be much less readable with the use of more complex and advanced-level phrase. For instance, phrases such as “the notion of” and “precise characterizations” are not commonly used in daily communications. It has also been observed that modal verbs, such as “can” and “might”, are found to be more frequently used in the book than in the journal article. The modal verbs express different degrees of uncertainty and make the argument more logically sound and precise. In addition, there is also a much more frequent use of academic terms in the book. The overall style of the book is found to be more academically accurate and rigorous than the journal article.

Whether the tone of writing is clear depends on whether a suitable implied authorship is identified, which is the role the author plays in writing. In a successful article, the role of the author can be accepted by the reader. The more authentic the role played by the author, the more convincing the article is. A more human-like tone is found in the journal article, as the readers are able to sense the care from the author to make the material easier to understand. In other words, the authors assume the role of not only economists, but also communicators of the economic findings to the general readers.  In contrast, the overall tone of the book seems more focused on the delivery of the concepts and the arguments and less about the reading experience. The role of the authors becomes much more functional and less relational. Since the two texts are intended for different audiences, the different tones are both contributive to the authors’ arguments.

The authors of the texts have different motivations of writing, due to the different lengths and type of the text. The authors of the journal article wrote in order to present a new point, or a new research finding. In order to find out about the development of inequality acceptance, the authors have conducted an economic experiment on adolescences and gathered the data from the experiments. The aim of the paper is thus to present the result of the experiment and discuss about the significance of their experiment. The new results from the experiment is seeking the academic approval from the readers and to convince on the significance of their intellectual work. This may be the reason why the authors are trying to make the article more readable. In comparison, the aim of the book, as stated by the authors, is to “provide a truly interdisciplinary perspective on fairness, equity, and justice.” This makes comprehensiveness, inclusiveness, and diversity in perspectives the biggest features of the book. The authors are not seeking for approval or agreement from the readers. Instead, they are aiming to inform the readers in comprehensive ways.

For the journal article written in the economic discipline, a possible convention may be the use of plain and simple languages in explaining complex terms, theories, and arguments. Since the study of economy is closely related to the daily lives of ordinary people, it may be the belief of academic writers of the economic discipline to avoiding using “big words” to demonstrate the status of scientists or scholars. Scientific and academic features in the journal are not derived from rhetoric, but from the quality of the ideas and the logic way of presenting them. In the journal article, it can be seen that simple words are used to bring a sense of concrete meaning due to the everyday use. In comparison, a general reader may find it frustrating to be interrupted by complex academic terms and uncommon ways of expression in the book. To the general readers, the long sentences and constantly emerging new terms seems to be driving them away from the main idea of the article. In order to fully comprehend the meaning of the author, a much higher level of attention is required. It can be seen that a possible convention of the behavioral science discipline, or the scientific discipline in general, is the rigorous use of accurate terms instead of “dumbing it down” for the readers. The difference in reference styles is another difference in the two disciplines. Compared to the more detailed in-text citations and uniform reference lists in the behavioral science book, the citation style of the economic journal article seems more simplified.

The texts from the two disciplines also demonstrate the different values of economy and science. The journal article approaches the issue of inequality from the economic perspective, which has a higher sense of social responsibility and care for the welfare of the majority. The aim of the paper is to explore the origin and development of inequality acceptance of adolescents. In the current world, the gap between the rich and the poor is much greater than the income gap. Inequality in social wealth distribution has become one of the fundamental social problems in most parts of the world. The journal article directly points to the origin of inequality acceptance and the intention behind such economic research is obvious: to find a solution to the problem of inequality by understanding the mechanisms of it. In contrast, the authors of the book are more concerned about exploring the behavioral laws of the human beings and establishing a more comprehensive understanding of the human society.

Although the article and the book approach the same topic of inequality, they differ significantly in terms of rhetorical devices, evidence, style, tone, motivations, and values. Based on economic expertise and perspective, the journal article mainly uses statistics and ethos in supporting its argument. From the behavioral science perspective, the book adopts more comprehensive evidence types and rhetorical devices due to the length and diversity of perspectives. Moreover, the journal article is also more readable and approachable in style and tone compared to the book. These differences not only reflect the different motivations of writing, but also the different conventions and values of the two disciplines.


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