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Introduction to Time Management in Project Management

2021-07-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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1. Introduction

 

Social division of labor promotes the professionalization of almost every industry. On the other hand, the popularization of information technology has broadened the vision of modern people. Therefore, the production of certain products or the provision of certain services requires a wider range of knowledge than ever before. In order to solve the problem of comprehensive skill requirements, the concept of project is introduced. Project refers to a group of team members with rich knowledge in a certain field to jointly complete the concept of a product or service. The core role of the project team is the project manager, who is responsible for guiding the team into the right track and ensuring the successful completion of the project. The project team is goal oriented. The project-based team structure is simple and convenient for communication among team members. In addition, the organization of the project team ensures the flexibility of the work. The manager can adjust his work according to the situation. In addition, compared with traditional departmental companies, incentives are easier to implement due to fewer personnel.

 

With the development trend of project-based enterprises, project management has attracted more and more attention. Many researchers have conducted investigations to reveal the secrets of project management. The success of a project is related to many factors. A recent study [1] focused on the impact of project management on multinational organizations operating in three countries. The survey results show that time and profit have an important impact on the success of the project. Another study [2] attempts to explore the mainstream method for project managers to measure project success. The questionnaire was sent to nearly 1000 project managers. According to the collected data, the three highest standards for judging the success of the project are time, budget and specification. There are many studies trying to reveal the secrets behind the success of the project. However, most research results link the results of the project with time management and actual progress. Therefore, it is valuable to explore how excellent time management works so that managers can correctly guide their team. The next section will introduce the process of project time management, and then introduce the related work of project time management. This paper will cite a survey to clarify the practice of time management in practical business, and further discuss the importance and practice of project time management. Finally, the conclusion is given.

 

2. Time management process

 

[3] This paper comprehensively reviews the basic framework of time management in project management. Seven processes are determined: plan progress management, define activities, sort activities, estimate activity resources, estimate activity duration, formulate progress and control progress.

 

The first step of time management is schedule management. The results of this process include policies, procedures and documents. It is the guide of project schedule. During the planning period, the scope baseline, project charter, environmental and organizational factors will be considered. A variety of tools can be used to complete planning and scheduling, including expert judgment, analysis technology and meetings. The output of this process is the progress management plan, which is the direction of time management in the future.

 

The second process is to define activities. The schedule management plan of the previous process plays an important role in this step. The purpose of defining activities is to determine the specific activities required to complete the project. Decomposition, rolling wave planning and expert judgment are the mainstream technologies to guide this process. The result of this process is a list of activities that describe all the activities that should be performed. A detailed description of each activity and its urgency will be detailed in the list.

 

The third process can be summarized as sequence activities. The goal of this process is to determine the relationship between activities in the activity list. Some diagrams, such as priority diagrams, activities on arrows, and task dependencies, can be considered useful when determining relationships. Dependency identification and application leads and delays are implemented in the process. With these technologies and tools, we can draw a network diagram to reveal the relationship between activities.

 

The fourth and fifth processes describe the estimation of activity resources and activity duration. The estimation of resources includes the prediction of materials, human resources and equipment. Expert judgment, scheme analysis and bottom-up estimation are usually used in calculation. The resulting resource requirements will then be used as input to estimate the duration of each activity. Some formulas can be used to help predict the duration of an activity.

 

The sixth process is development scheduling. The purpose of the project is to find a suitable timetable for the implementation of the project. Critical path method and critical chain method are commonly used in scheduling. The concept of critical path refers to a series of activities that are crucial to project delivery. You cannot delay activities in this path because delaying any activities in this path delays the completion of the project. The calculation of critical path is an algorithm widely used by project managers. The process of this step may be more complex than the previous process, because it involves resource optimization and modeling technology. The detailed schedule of the project will be incorporated into the project document at the end of this process.

 

The last process is the control schedule, which determines and analyzes the status of activities and manages changes as the project is implemented. Performance evaluation and scheduling tools are usually used to output schedule management plans. The objective of this process is to manage the uncertainty in the implementation of the project and reduce the risk as much as possible.

 

Due to the frequent occurrence of uncertainty in the process of project implementation, the process of project time management is very complex. Therefore, the importance of time management can be seen. The schedule and its management plan help to reduce the risk cost and reduce the opportunity to capture uncertainty. In short, a reasonable project schedule is not only the guarantee for the success of the project, but also the guarantee for reducing the potential risk of the project.

 

3. Project time management related work

 

With the wide application of project management in enterprise management, researchers have conducted in-depth research on the essence of project management and its relationship with project performance. For example, [6] developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the results of project management practices. It is recommended to incorporate project management actions, procedures, human factors, project related factors and external environment into the framework as key success factors. Time management is an important factor running through these five factors.

 

In recent years, the research on project scheduling under deterministic conditions has attracted extensive attention. Schedule is one of the most important tasks in project time management. The seven processes of time management [3] aim to produce uncertainty, which is the main problem that makes the management problem more difficult in practice in real life. The purpose of study [8] is to examine the potential of several methods related to this topic. Reactive scheduling focuses on readjusting the baseline scheduling to adapt to changes. Stochastic project scheduling divides the scheduling process into several stages. Fuzzy ranking suggests using membership model when the lack of data leads to imprecision. Sensitivity analysis will raise many "if" questions in the project environment.

 

Two empirical models dealing with project scheduling under uncertainty are introduced [7]. As mentioned earlier, the estimation of activity duration is an important work, which will determine the implementation of the schedule. If the estimates of key activities are inaccurate, adjustments must be made to ensure the smooth implementation of the project. Therefore, the possibility of problems if delayed is greatly increased.

 

In recent years, the methodology of using software to assist enterprise decision-making has been widely used in project management. Microsoft project is the abbreviation of MSP, which is widely used in small and medium-sized projects [9]. In order to expand the limitations of existing mainstream auxiliary tools, a method of combining modern tools with traditional project scheduling methods is proposed. The author believes that it is impossible to realize the trade-off between time and cost after the project schedule is determined. However, as the main force driving the development direction of the project, customers often change their minds on the delivery date. MSP is almost impossible to help adjust scheduling to meet new requirements. Another study [10] proposed a non delay schedule to assist in project management.

 

4. Construction project time management practice

 

Construction project is a typical engineering type worthy of study. Research [5] shows that poor time management is the key factor affecting project management performance. It reveals the problem of poor time management in the construction site. At the same time, it is proposed to correctly deal with the deficiencies in performance appraisal indicators and improve the timeliness of performance appraisal. The study also emphasizes that the high complexity of construction projects leads to the urgency of good time management.

 

Since time management is very important for construction projects, a survey was conducted in order to further explore the practice of time management in the context of construction projects [4]. The purpose of this study is to find out the mainstream practice of time management methods applied in the construction industry. Issue questionnaires to survey the data of project managers. According to the statistical data, we can find some conclusions to help further discuss the practice of time management. The first factor is that project managers usually go all out during project planning. The second finding is that most managers claim that the calculation of activity duration is based on resources and productivity. The third finding refers to the description of the work area, which is usually recorded in the same way as that on the construction schedule. The last finding is that most progress records are kept in the database in digital form. Stored event records include data on work performed, labor allocation, task description and contract documents indicating work.

 

According to the survey results, some useful practices can be put forward to ensure the smooth progress of the construction project.

 

The first is that the project manager should take most of the responsibility to formulate the schedule management plan. It can be seen from most of the job descriptions of the project manager that the work should comprehensively control the implementation of public relations.

 

The second recommendation summarizes the storage of project data. The results show that the files of most completed projects will be saved on paper and in the database. This is a good practice because data is crucial to project time management. Referring to previous projects, the progress of similar projects can be inferred. Data are particularly valuable for contemporary industry. The characteristics of construction projects mean that most of the progress data can be quantified, including the construction period of construction activities and labor allocation. Without the support of historical data, the project manager will find it difficult to start when arranging the project. The statistical results show that labor force distribution, the date of actual activities and task description are the three most worthy records. Collecting project data after the project is completed is considered to be an important work to monitor the project progress. It will help to review past projects and start a new project.

 

Finally, a good practice when scheduling activities is to execute the status line. Most respondents found it useful to report on the overall progress and the timetable for periodic review. When reviewing the past work of the project undertaken, you can draw the schedule into a straight line, with the completed tasks on the left and the upcoming tasks on the right. Each member of the team can easily understand the status line. It reminded members of the progress of the project. A clear blueprint will be embedded in the minds of project managers to remind them of what they should pay attention to. It is especially suitable for regular meetings to review the progress of the project.

 

In this section, we review the survey on time management practice of construction projects. In order to ensure the smooth implementation of time management, this paper puts forward three research conclusions. In summary, it is strongly recommended to record historical project data and status lines when managing projects. The project manager shall pay close attention to the implementation of the project. Once the potential risk is exposed, he or she should take the responsibility to solve the problem. Managers also assume the responsibility of motivating team members to ensure a friendly and convenient communication environment. However, the recommendation also applies to other industries.

 

5. Conclusion

 

This paper briefly introduces project time management. Time management is one of the important factors that directly affect the project results. In the process of time management, seven processes can be identified. The related literature of schedule management under uncertainty is reviewed. The next lesson will introduce some practices that can be applied in time management.

 

Time management is an important concept in planning and arranging projects. Through reasonable schedule, the project cost will be minimized. In addition to routine activity identification and resource estimation, time management also provides a control plan to help adjust the project according to unexpected changes. Many important concepts are introduced in the process of time management. One of the famous concepts is critical path. Critical path is a common method to determine which activities are important and should not be delayed. The critical path between uncertain activities deserves good planning. This report provides a case study that combines modern tools and traditional scheduling methods to help adjust the project to meet shorter time requirements. Experience and practice intuitively help to ensure the smooth implementation of the project. Project managers are the leaders of the project. They mean to be able to carry out a better time management process. They must master the skills of how to ensure effective time management. At the same time, motivation and communication with team members are also two important tasks that managers should pay attention to. Historical data may prove useful when initializing a project. Especially time management. Taking construction projects as an example, activity estimation is an art, which needs past data to assist in calculating more accurate results. After the project is completed, the database can store data such as progress plan, project document and labor allocation. In order to review and further explore the project, data can be easily retrieved by accessing the database. Finally, the chart is clear and easy to understand. In order to ensure that the project schedule is clearly presented and easy to understand by other members, charts are very helpful. During a meeting, you can draw a status line that contains some or all of the activities. It's easy to figure out the current situation of the project.


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