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A Brief Research on China’s Creative Industries

2021-07-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大家推荐一篇优秀的经济paper。


With the economic growth rate reaching the historical highest level of 14% in 2007 and the current marginal growth is decreasing, China has been adjusting its economic development trajectory from simply focusing on economic data growth to improving economic quality. Since the implementation of the "revolution and opening up" policy in 1978, China has accumulated huge economic strength, but it lags behind in measuring the soft power of national innovation and creativity.

 

The ambition to change from "made in China" to "designed / created in China" has long been a thorny topic faced by the government and entrepreneurs. Fortunately, in this post Internet and information dominated era, China's senior management seized this golden opportunity and established a new cross-border industry, which highlighted the synchronization of resources and information from a large number of industries, and replaced the traditional product-oriented operation mode with a platform or data oriented mode. In this spirit, the term "creative industry" was born in the policy document of China's official 2014 five-year plan.

 

Ci initially gained special momentum in major cities in China, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hangzhou and Guangzhou. Broadly speaking, compared with other Asian, European and American countries, China is actually a later member of the CI camp in the world, partly because it is well known that the Chinese authorities have reservations about cultural liberalization and the free flow of resources and information. For example, in 2000, the economic contribution of Ci to Singapore's annual GDP was estimated to be between 2.8% and 3.2% (Kong et al., 2006); In 2002, the annual contribution rates of Ci in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Thailand were 3.4%, 2.5% and 3.0% respectively (Leo and Lee, 2004). However, in 2015, China's figure did not exceed 1.5%. Therefore, the government's policy support for CI development is reasonable.

 

Interestingly, the term "creative industry" is defined quite casually around the world. In China, CI is specifically defined by government decision makers as an industry that uses big data and network technology to promote cultural construction, effective resource reorganization and information sharing.

 

In China, due to the favorable trend of Internet popularization and technological progress, CI is widely divided into press and publication, radio and television, animation, network new media, advertising, art and performing arts. The reason why CI has received special attention is that it is heavily dependent on a large population base and has finally changed the profit logic of enterprises - that is, converting online clicks into cash (consumer payment). Looking forward to the future, if such a huge CI potential can be realized, the market value of China's economic and cultural strength will be significantly improved.

 

Therefore, since the beginning of 2014, local governments in major cities in China have implemented a series of policies to encourage the development of creative industries under the guidance of the official policy document entitled "several suggestions on Encouraging Creative Industries and design services" (hereinafter referred to as the 2014 Policy). An example is the emergence of a new "technology cluster" in Hangzhou. Hangzhou is considered to be a pioneer city of China's online commerce industry, and the famous online commerce giant Alibaba is here. Local policy data show that more than 35 technical fields have been established, and a huge budget support of 12 million yuan has been arranged to support relevant sub industries such as online new media, cultural tourism, ancient culture protection and patent protection. Other provinces have implemented similar incentive policies; The governments of Guangzhou and Shenzhen jointly: (1) provide conditional subsidies of about 10 million yuan per year to colleges and universities that have made technological breakthroughs in the development of online media( 2) Establish a 100 million CI fund to attract the participation of enterprises, governments and social media, (3) welcome those who have worked in CI for five consecutive years and have made material gains to enter the country( 4) Promise to give 300-600 million yuan in cash reward to the company or individual initiating the national patent approval. It should be noted that the policies listed above are a useful example, but by no means tiring.

 

Obviously, the overall goal of these policies is to improve China's international cultural competitiveness - soft power. These policies provide strong political and monetary incentives for enterprises and individuals to contribute their wisdom to CI. Today, three years later, there is evidence that these policies have successfully supported the development of Ci to a certain extent, the market share and enterprise profitability have increased significantly, and CI participants have obtained rich returns.

 

In these three years, the beneficiaries of the policy in 2014 were mainly three Internet and new media giants, who started Internet business as early as the 1990s (Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent; Bat). Among the 564 million Internet users in China, these giants account for more than 80% of long-term users (H.Y. Xiang and P.A. walker, 2015). Other emerging CI companies have also demonstrated their excellent innovative vision and the ability to create and design new online service models. In 2016, Mavericks Co., Ltd., one of the best CI executives in Shenzhen, won a government cash award of 300 million yuan with its original online financial and tourism platform; This platform attempts to build a bridge between traditional travel agencies and listed companies that provide air tickets, hotel reservations and other travel accessories. The CEO of Mavericks commented: "Ci requires a lot of upfront investment, which may hinder many beginners from entering the market, but our government policy support plays a role in buffering these unknown market risks." It is worth noting that Mavericks is a very young company, which was incorporated in 2012. By introducing an efficient payment platform, it has found a good solution to the problem of delayed payment faced by travel agencies.

 

Interestingly, before 2013, the above British and American tobacco giants accounted for more than 59% of China's Ci market share, which is the overwhelming concentration that the government wants to reduce. Although bat is a strong CI leader, their business is limited to information and data processing. This branch faces the challenges of market saturation and declining government support. With the surge in the number of CI companies, bat's market share fell to 40% at the end of 2016, which is a positive signal that all new entrants have effectively expanded the coverage of CI.

 

Accordingly, China's newly issued CI policy document gives less weight to the past model, but pays more attention to encouraging the innovation of resource connection and sharing; This is why the 2014 policy covers a wide range of fields such as online education, blockchain, scientific research, data and in kind sharing, and even catering and tourism, all of which are promising additional contents defined by CI.

 

In three years, the scale of CI has almost doubled, which proves the great ability of Ci and the positive effect of government support. The research shows that the government supports the development of enterprise innovation in the aspects of monetary incentive, infrastructure construction (technology cluster), identity and risk control.

 

In short, under the active policy guidance of the government, CI has paved the way for the Chinese market by updating its single traditional definition and integrating new elements such as tourism, catering, education, convenience and sharing. As a milestone in this emerging industry, the policy of 2014 played a catalytic role in the development of CI enterprises and helped them seize the great opportunity of resource reconstruction and win-win. Overall, the Chinese government has been successful in supporting domestic CI growth.


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